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University of Toronto St. George
Michel Cottier

CLA231: Introduction to Roman History Lecture 1: Introduction + Italy before Rome th Wednesday September 12 , 12 Iron Age Italy: Italic People Different groups fill the population and the period from the end of the 9 to the beginning of the 8 centuryth BC. There are two groups: the venetians that will have some settlement in Sicily, the Carthaginian will colonize in the south of Italy and the Greeks will also populate Southern Italy as well. The Greeks will arrive around the 8 century and settle along the coast of Sicily in the north and south. They will later have some contact with the people of Rome. The people of Greece will cause a huge difference in the Roman society. Roman Worldview of Extension of Empire over Western Europe and Northern Africa when it was at its Largest The position of Italy is located in the Mediterranean world. It is a peninsula surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea. Italy is accessible from three sides by sea, which will be a positive and a negative in terms of trade and migration. Italy will not have the culture its had through the middle Ages. 770 & 750: Euboean trading post on the island of Pithecusaewhich is important to Roman historians because this is the time where evidence is found for the birth of the city of Rome. In 753 BC is the traditional date of Romes founding by Romulus, the first king of Rome. - The creation of the Greek alphabet in 750 BC is important because this is when the Romans take from the Greek alphabet to make one of their own. - In 750 BC the Carthage will become the archenemy of the Romans, in other words considered to be the Venetians. The Phoenicians founded the Carthage. - In 730- 720 BC marks the start of the Greek colonization in southern Italy and Sicily. New technology allows new reorganization for people to migrate to Italy in terms of religious being and architecture. 509 BC is the traditional date for the founding of the Republic after the expulsion of Tarquinius Superbus, the last king of Rome. In other words can be considered the Roman republic, when government changes from kingship to a Republic (not what we consider in the modern world) Peoples of Early Italy A series of very important rivers: 1) Po River, which runs from northern Italy below the Alps. It is a huge area that is extremely fertile. Today, we can modern cities. The land is flat which is perfect for agriculture. This river is also navigable, for merchants to bring their goods, trade and travel. 2) Arno River is a place that was divided by the Etruscans. The river Arno is flowing through the city of Pisa, and Florence. 3) Tiber River, which is a very big that goes deep inside central Italy and flowing through Rome into the Eastern Sea The island of Pithecuase (which means the island of the monkeys) - a tiny island that is not very interesting, but it was a place of trade and settlement - it is along the coast close to Naples Map of Italy around 256BC The Cities: 1) Cumae, which is Greek of the Etruscan Sea and along the harbor 2) Neapolis, which come straight from Naples (which in English means Blue Sea) 3) Tarentum is located in modern day Calabria 4) Rehgium, which is a harbor city that provided a best connection into the city 5) Messana that faces the city of Rehgium 6) Syracruse, which will become one of the most important cities in Italy and Sicily 7) Carthage is located in modern day Africa Roman World View of extension of empire over western Europe and Northern Africa - times of communication and times of movement - the ability to access the coasts o it is a plus because people are going to bring stuff to trade and settle o but the negative is that if people come with war like intensions it would be an issue for how open that land is to the Sea Peoples of Early Italy - connections and communications with peoples of goods like useful activity for goods, but can also be a problem for war like intensions. - By using the Tiber river you can literally cross from East to West being able to use rivers and harbors, military by sea is good because it is easily assessable but for those with bad intensions the land must be protected for how open it is Map of Italy - Italy is protected on the Northern side because of the Alps (which are 4000 meters high) which stretches to Pineto - Technically, in the wintertime the Alps are impassable. In the end of the 3 c. BC we will have evidence that they are passable but it is still quite difficult (based on the travel of a group of men). Usually for traders or merchants that are using on foot will not cross the Alps during the wintertime because it is too life risking and the danger of losing your goods. - The area of the modern day Genoa, to the foot of the Italian peninsula sits another set of mountains that block away danger Peoples of Early Italy - the conditions of the group of people was fairly advanced inside the peninsula, because their language (Non Indo-European language) - the other part of the population of the Indo-European speakers - the Etruscans were mainly leaving around 1000c BC which is now Tuscany. It is a very safe area, good land for agriculture. In the land you can find mines, lead, zinc and copper. Because there is a little small island called Elba, which produced Iron for weaponry. People were able to settle on Elba for production of weaponry, tools and trade specifically in metal. Site of Ancient Rome (753 BC) Along the river Tiber is Rome, which is inland. Rome is only connected to the sea through the Tiber River, which is a positive because it will be harder to attack. Rome will be harder to access at night during the time of war. At some point they will create a harbor at the time of the foundation. Italy is also protected by several hills: Capitoline, Palatine, Esquiline, Caelian, Aventine, Quirinal, and Viminal. During the time of war, it was easier for soldiers to stand at the top of the hills and attack down to their attackers. Salt is a huge resource around the Tiber River along the marches. Salt became a huge necessity in trade that could be exploited and could also explain why people settled in Rome. People of Early Italy - an important line of communication (the Tiber River), where the first wooden bridge will also be built, and a port, this opens the accessibility to the city across from Rome Roman world view of empire over Western Europe and northern Africa The Indo Europeans are group of people speaking their own language and settled massively around parts of Eurpean around 1300BC. They migrated from north of Indian, most likely because they were looking for better places to live. They would have moved across Asia and into the Italian penisula. These Indo Europeans will be the first settlers of Italy. They were moving with the kind of animals they had, and the groups. At some point they would have to stop and this resulted in their place of settlement. The political system was based on the king, who had a council of rich members of society. The origin was based around a male god, which later influenced the religion of the Greeks, Etruscans, and the Italians. Once settled, the different groups will keep these kinds of aspects. Finally, they use cremation to burn the dead. They use the ashes inside a pot during the ceremony and bury it underground. Before the 8 century the Veneti wills more to the northeast and the Gauls to the north, the Latins to the west coast of central Italy. A different group of Italians called the Umbro- Sabellians, a term, which encompasses several different tribes dwelling to the northeast, east, and southeast of Rome. The Venetians and the Greek traders will influence the civilizations through the Etruscans and other populations will discover through direct contacts the civilization of Greece. The Greeks will modify the Venetian alphabet by introducing vowels. This will later influence the Roman people who will adopt the Greek alphabet and later modify it to their own alphabet. The Caere What we can see is a round structure, which is a tomb, that consists of some larger than others. Technically what you have is a construction of local materials called Tufa. You build a cylonder and inside it you will have a corridor with several rooms. What they do is move some stones ontop where bodies will be put. Ontop of that will be a roof, and later grass and bushes. This is what they use for their tomb. When looking on the inside of the tomb, or the entrance of the stone structure you can see the layering of the tomb. When entering inside the tomb you can see how they were divided into
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