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Lecture 23.docx

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Regina Hoeschele

th Lecture 23 November 29 , 2012 Alterities are dangerous  Could rip apart the city  Rich and poor ( elite vs. demons)  ripped apart the city  Project all the evils onto one person = scapegoat  Part of a ritual and common in all sorts of cultures.  Chose someone who was marginal ( ugly, immoral) of the city  Becomes a symbol of things “evil” /bad things – exiled the person to cleanse the city from the evil person.  Rene Girard- the way society dealt with differences through scapegoat  to unites  E.g. Nazi Germany  used Jews as a scapegoat to deal with their internal problems  In antiquity- people compare Oedipus as a scapegoat  Trouble often present if no king.  Athens – special kind of scapegoat  Ostracism in Athens happened every year – echleron (council) would cast to vote – if ostracism Is on or off ( had to have more than 6000 to vote – if happens – choose someone  They would leave the polis for 10 years  Practical solution to dealing with internal differences ( in politics especially) – since politics creates tension  Athenians used exiling to dealing with those who are threats to the polis and causing civil war  Informed methods – comedy!  Through ridicule – isolate the individual  I.e. Wasps – Cleon – isolated – in order to get rid of the problem – but this didn‟t work out as effectively.  Through laughter – drive away the idea/ person off the city ( i.e. the polis)  Socrates – “ideal scapegoat”  He opposed all the traditional norms  Athens was at the time very troubled, economical troubles, etc.  What he was accused of may not have been entirely true  Yet the ideal „scapegoat‟  Remove the evil other from the polis Last Lecture  Demos  positive “the people” in Athens  Hoipoloi  the many, masses ( neutral – to negative cont.) Sparta.  Why did they Ostracize?  Only citizens ( as far as we know)  Purpose  to make sure there are not a lot “ huge” forces  Eliminate the big cheese  Yet there have estates all over Greece, Xenia, etc.  Often they would come back even stronger – but somewhat pointless (for the ostracization) because 10 years later, the politics would change so his purpose is lost.  Effective solution  but was abused at times.  BKGD on education  EDN  left on the individual, family and your father/ (erastes and eromenos)  It was an elite privilege/ form: You need time to learn to speak, learn the politics. Read the laws, etc.  head time and money and power to do it.  Symposium  central place where the education is encouraged  Conservative and personal  Father / eromenos – most likely never taught to question  not to question the traditions  Politics – influenced but those who spoke  so the elite did have a major hand  able to speak  430‟s BC  new form of education  Sophists  traveling teachers  if you can pay them, they can teach you how to speak persuasively  The sophists divorced the method of speech from the elite.  Sophists – wise men {Sophia – wisdom}  Cleon  not an elite  but could pay to be taught  you can be taught and be powerful  The sophists- acquired negative connotation over time.  Athens  very suspicious of them, what and how they taught you.  They were unknown people  out of time  Before the thought of the ways in suspicion  Also the context of the sophists  Very little is known  only little fragments  What we have  it was radical and philosophically advanced  Protagoras – “man is the measure of all things”  Justice is all what men say justice is:”  A) moral relativism  Logos: speech and rationality  Rhetorics and speech  Gorgias  all of reality is simply words  Say that he convinced black is white, night is day.  All is about persuasition of speech  Had a gimic  used it to gather customers  get up one day argue from one side  next day the other side of the topic – and both sides win.  No truth, words replaces truth  A method of speech that held no truth  A problem for antiquity  i.e. let‟s go to war 
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