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Introduction to Greek Culture (Lecture #2) September 13th .docx

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Victoria Wohl

TH Introduction to Greek Culture (Lecture #2)  September 13 2012  Athens had been settled since the Bronze Age (Mycenaean settlements)  Demography: Attica  Autochthony (Coming from the very earth Born of the Earth)  Athena- Patron god of Athens + Virgin goddess  Erichthonios: Born of Hephaestos + The soil of Attica (King)  Ownership of the land (Biological connection)  Exclusivity (Physical connection to the land)  Difficult to become an Athenian citizen  Exclusive attitude towards other Greeks  Connected between blood ties (Brotherhood- Strong ties)  Poseidon (Offered a spring) and Athena (Offered the Olive Tree)  A sense of exceptionalism, inequalities (better than other Greeks)  Idealizing maternity (Qualities of Athena)  Special because of its democracy (For The People)  Archaic Period (Ruled by oligarchy and then by a tyrant)  (510 BCE) Pisistratus exiled and democracy formed  Radical Democracy (One person represents the People)  Direct Democracy (People are the Government)  Demokratia  kratos (authority) + demos (of the people)  Directly by the citizens of Athens (6000 quarum) Show of hands  Native born Athenian men over 18 = VOTING CITIZENS  Women + Foreigners could not vote  45,000 of 300,000 Athenians were allowed to vote (Name was pulled out of a hat)  Every citizen was a politician  Aristocrats were not happy about power to the people  Aristocrats looked upon democracy as a “Tyranny of the Mob”  Pericles reflects the ideals of the society  Delivered in 431 BC (War of Athens + Sparta)  Epitaphios Logos (Speech over the grave)  Start of Democracy  Kleos (Glory that lives on after death) Reward for Heroes  All of the Athenians are given “kleos” after death  Vague on where the war started, who they were up against  Recruit soldiers into the war  Glorified version of Athens  Idealized Vision  Pericles (General in the War 450-430 BCE) What are the qualities of an Athenian?  Snobby  Autonomous  Honorable  Courageous  Manly  Loyal  Responsible  Pious  Efficient  Smart  Pride  Generous  Disciplined  Adaptable  Moderate  Informed  Nobles  Starts with the ancestors (Starts with “autochthony”)  Mechanics of democracy  Part of the nationality character  Freedom to the individual  Kalokagathia (abstract form)  beautiful, noble, virtuous  The Good Man + The Great Man  Social + Moral Sense of Nobility  Attribute of the whole Athenian polis  Not everyone is involved  Appealing to the nobility  Socially divided between the rich and poor  Everyone is aristocratic in the moral sense  Leisure for everyone (DEMOCRATIZE PLEASURE)  Pericles spent the tribute to spread the pleasure to the people  Commoners defined against noblemen  Homogenous citizen body  Eleutheria (Aut
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