Class Notes (809,125)
Canada (493,536)
Classics (1,680)
CLA232H1 (202)

Herodotus Book 7 1-139

8 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Victoria Wohl

February 6 , 2012 Midterm 90min Part 1 really short answer1 sentence, one word answer Part 2relatively short answerwell written mini essay, paragraph, more detail the better, choice 4/5, 40 points, similar to homework questions Part 3 is essay1/2 questionsvery broadtalk about things you find interesting, 40 points Blitzkrieg history of Persian wars Vital moment in Greek history, moment where Greeks become major player in Mediterranean Vital moment of self definition in various polis within Greece, moment where we see Greece united Herodotus gives us a long list of Greek polis that medizemeaning to go to Mede subsection of Persiansanother way of saying going over to the Persians Those Greek cities who medize had it held against them for the rest of the century, wrong side of the war War differentiated those who medize and those who foldthroughout Persian wars Spartans and Athenians had different strategieswhen Persians started attacking first by land, the Spartan strategy was always to pull all Greek forces back to Peloponnese and wall off the Ismuth of Corinth Not a good strategy for Athenians to leave them out in the cold Athenians had to face Persians Athenians had to face Persians because of their geography Herodotus says139 book 7, o At this point I find myself compelled to express an opinion which i know most people will object to, nevertheless, as i believe it to be true, I will not suppress it. if the Athenians, through fear of the approaching danger, had abandoned their country ot if they had stayed there and submitted to Xerxes, there would have been no attempt to resist the Persians by sea; and, in the absence of a Greek fleet, it is easy to see what would have been the course of events on land. However many lines of fortification the Spartans had built across the Isthmus, they would have been deserted by their confederates; not that their allies would have willingly deserted them, but they could not have helped doing so because one by one they would have fallen victims to the Persian naval power. Thus the Spartans would have been left aloneto perform great deeds and to die nobly. Or, on the other hand it is possible that before things came to the ultimate test, the sight of the rest of Greece submitting to Persia might have driven them to make terms with Xerxes. In either case the Persian conquest of Greece would have been assured; for I cannot myself see what possible use there could have been in fortifying the isthmus, if the Persians had command of the sea. In view of this, therefore, one is surely right in saying that Greece was saved by Athenians. It was Athenians who held the balance: whichever side they joined was sure to prevail. It was the Athenians, too, who having chosen that Greece should live and preserve her freedom, roused to battle the other Greek states which had not yet submitted. It was the Athenians who after the godsdrove back the Persian king. Herodotus not Athenian But agree their strategy saved Greece Used it as leverage against Spartans, justification, and empire In Athens, Athens great victory over Persians was fought at a naval battle, naval forces were what enabled them to defeat Persians Rise of democracydefeat Persians deserves political power Not just a victory of Greece over Persia, but other cities gained or lost power due to performance in war Herodotus touches on internal politics in Athens and Sparta and within Persia and various cities Herodotus gives us a history from beginning to end, from women swapping, to Croesus, all the way to Greek victory over Persia Lots of historical detail, but no history is ever neutral especially those of war Every historian has to choose the details he includes Has to choose what hes going to tell and what hes not, what shape to give, every historian in telling a story shapes his facts Herodotus shapes facts to tell story like Greek tragedy Tragic structureno man happy till dead Same narrative structure along entire Persian warswhole wars play out like a tragedy Persias hubris, Greece microcosm of whole thing Tragic narrative Many tragedies are structure by plot line of individual who over reaches, goes against sofrosune Gives meaning to events Instead of random assortment of events, but takes on a moral wait Story of arrogance, divine punishment and not military strategy 499 Ionian revolt o IonianGreek living in Asia minor on coast of Asia for centuries, first conquered by Sirius and brought into Persian rule, now ruled by Cyrus successor Darius o Greek value their euruthera, revolt against Persia for freedom, send for help, Sparta refuses to do anything for them, Athenians do go to help them, colonies sent from Attica, bond of kinship between Ionian Greeks and Atheniansencourage an Ionian revolt--Athenians keep going to Sardis and burn it down, Ionians subdued, Darius put down rebellion, re-enslaves Ionians, and holds lifelong grudge against Athenians who burn their capitalslave every night whispered in his ear king remember Athenians o 9 year grudge 490, sets out to conquer Greecesets out to Aegean with a huge force o Sets of to marathon26 miles awayDarius lands there o One thing to go across sea and attack Persians another thing to wake up with Darius and huge troops on door step o Send messenger to Spartao Phidipides messenger who travelled 240km in one day o Ran into god on the way (fictional) shows how desperate Athenians were o All running in vaintells Spartans, Persians have arrived please send troops o Spartans say theyre in the middle of ceremony religious, impiety to god to interrupt o By time they got there it was too late o Miltiadesgeneralreminds Greeks that this is your land, you were born out of, how are you going to let yourself be taken over, convinces Athenians to fight for mother land o Athenian forces march out and meet Persians at marathon o Athenians vastly outnumbered like 1000-1, terror factor because Athenians never encountered Persians face to face o Until then Greeks terrified even to hear the name of the Medes o Not only outnumbered but their opponent had a reputation of excellence o Herodotus tells us they covered the distance at a run o Persians thought they were possessed, they fought hand to hand, Persians driven back to sea o Herodotus tells us 192 Athenians and 6400 Persians o Sense of how much Athenians were o
More Less

Related notes for CLA232H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.