Self – and other within Greece share the same land.
It is one thing, that foreign people are helping to define us. But when the other is IN THE SAME CITY
(elite vs. demos) or IN THE SAME COUNTRY.
This way we are risking tearing the community apart
Difference vs. Division
Peloponnesian war – Greek vs. Greeks.
o Part of the same community. They have things that unite them
In Lysistiata, this united thing is erections, since it’s a comedy, but it unites them
Panhellenism – united Greeks. All speak Greek, not Bar-Bar-bar. United by reliogion, worship
Zeus, go to Delphi, uinited by cultural values (kalokagathia, andrea… ), and united by Shared
history, especialy the history of the Persian war.
The idea of Panhellenism fades in and out throughout the Greek history.
o When you are being attacked from the outside, it was easy to unite Greece. The Idea of
panhellenism when the Persians invaded, they needed to band together and fight as
o But when the Persian threat diminished, the Greek polis started to define themselves.
US and them becomes redefined. Us, Athenians, vs. Them, Spartans.
o After the Persian war Athenians and Spartans start arguing. But they used to be on our
side. So are they us or are they them. It’s confusing.
This is the question Lysistiata poses – “remember of Artemisium (naval battle),
how we used to fight together. We were all on the same side.” She uses the
Rederect of the Persian war to show the similarties. And now we are fighting
brother against brother.
So Lysitities (author) sees the Palopenesian war, as the manifestation of innate differences in Greece.
And that this war was inevitable.
Start with Persian Wars.
Lysistiata represents the Persian War was Greece’s Good war. We knew the difference between right
and wrong and we fought together against an evil.
In Herodotusus’s account of the Persian war, you could already see differences emerging between the
Athenians and the Spartans.
When Creon sends to see if he wants any Greeks as his allies, 100 years before Persian war, We realize
the big differences.
In the Persian War, Each side (Athens and Sparta) both get praises about how well they do in particular
battles. Demoreis calls the Spartans “the best soldiers in the world”. Herodotus then says, it’s the Athenians who saved Greece. (if Atheninas ran away, then the conquest of Greece would have been
certain. The Athenians held the balance. It was the Athenians who convinced the other city states to
fight as well.)
Even as both are given praise, he shows the differences between them. Sparta’s strategy was to wall of
the Ismus and sacrafise the northern Greece to Persia. Herodotus represents this as a form of strategy,
not as a form of cowardness. That’s where Sparta’s empire was. It wants to protect its own interests.
That’s their primary definition of us.
Athens show their actions as protecting ‘all of Greece’, but its hardly Altruistic. (if you remember, Darius
landed at marathon, 36 km from Greece). But really even though they say they are fighting for all of
Greece, they were fighting for themselves. They were most exposed. They have to protect the north.
The Palopenesian league – all the cities of the Pallopenese, of which Sparta was the strongest and the
leader. So Sparta essentially has an empire in the Palopenese. Spara had been a serious power before
the Persian war. Even during the Archaic period.
For Athen’s, it really became a strong power after the Persian War. Re-built the Acropolis, built the long
walls all the way to the sea (12 mile long). They built up their Navy, which gave them success at
Thalamus, but they also continued to build it up and it became the way to make an empire.
The Delian league, because its treasury was on the island of Delos. Started off as the independent
security league. All the island in the Aegen so Aegean or Ionic background. So they had two choices.
Donate money or ships. So by the end of the agreement, only three islands contributed ships, the rest
contributed money, and all this money went to Athens. Athens has all the military force, and they are
building their navy using the money from the Delian league. Athens building up its own power at the
literal expense of the other islands.
Athenians say “we didn’t seek out an empire”, they asked us to lead them, and we simply helped them
out. And we deserved this leadership because of our behaviour in the Persian war.
BUT as the threat of Persian diminishes over the 5 century, the other islands start to wonder, why are
we given them all this money, and they become increasingly resentful of Athens. And Athens start to
interfere more and more in the affairs in the Allied states. Overthrowing leaders, and meddling in their
internal affairs. By the _______, some Allies start to revolt. Athens crushes their rebellions by force (they
send in their own navy, which they paid for to crush them). At that point, those states that rebelled
were no longer free. They have to report to Athens. And become part of the Athenian empire. Final nail
in the coffin, the treasury is moved from Delos to Athens. Now, this is clearly JUST an empire.
This did not escape the eye of Sparta. Athens is building up this empire, Sparta starts to feel threatened.
By the 430’s the tensions are mounting.
The war started by a small conflict. Corynth, an ally of Sparta, was having trouble with its colony Corthira. They revolted, and the Athenians
went in to help them. Corynth thinks this is outrages, and Corynth appeals to Sparta for help. Are you
going to just stand by there as Athens are interferering in the affairs of a free state. The Spartans decide
to come to their aid. They tell Athens to get out, they refuse and in 431 Sparta declares war. (this was
only the pretext. The true cause was the growth of Athenian power and the fear this caused in Sparta.
Conflict was inevitable. The war lasted till 404.)
Lysitities is our main source for the Palopenesian war. For him this was a Polar conflict. The Spartan and
their Allies and the Athenian