Since all he Athenian citizens were equal, you couldn’t just assault another citizen.
If you attacked a slave, he couldn’t do anything about it.
o But it was like assaulting another citizen’s property. Almost like sleeping with his wife.
Slave COULD grow to some sort of ‘authority’. If they were literate and their master liked them.
The slave could be ‘in charge’ of the estate.
But ultimately slaves were tools, not people. No power or Freedom.
o Tyrant – who monipalizes all power and freedom. Opposite of a slave
In Athens a citizen is between these two extreme.
Athens associated tyrants to Barbarian.
During the Arcaic period, most of the Greek city states were ruled by tyrants, until the tyrant is
In the 6 century, there were lots of factions. Ultimately, __________ Takes over Athens.
Well ultimately others unite, and he is overthrown, but then he uses the Athena “beautiful
Then he is exiled again. Finally he gathers an army, and fully takes over Athens. This takes place
in mid 6 century.
His sons are Hippias and Hipparchus. Hippias appears to be a good leader. But Hipparchus was
NOT. He was indulgent, etc.
He fell in love with Harmodius. But Harmodius belonged? To Aristogeiton. And after Hipparchus
takes Harmodius against his will, Aristogeiton kills him
This is the end of the tyranny.
This is important, because this story defines Athenians as Tyrant haters from the very start.
Hipparchus tries to take Harmodies against his will, and is punished by death for trying to take a
When Xerxes invaded the Acropolis and Athens, he STOLE this statue of Harmodius and
Aristogeiton. This statue was VERY important.
At symposium they sang thng aboth these two people, AND their descendents received tax
breaks all throughout 4 and 5 century. This is how important these people were thought.
Solon (590’s BCE)
An archon, a chief magistrate of Athens. He wrote laws that were the foundation for the
He was a founding figure, and the Athenians projected back the best qualities of Athenian onto
Solon ‘embodies’ Greek values, like in his conversation with Creosus.
Plutart tells us. That he was perceived by both the poor and the rich as great.
He criticizes tyranny. Says it’s a great place to be in, but a very difficult road out.
His poem show his moderation, and median position.
He says he gave people as much as they deserved.
Instituted Medan Agan. A balance between the rich and the poor. Between different factions. Constitution – created sharing of power between different groups, so that there could be no
Plutart tells us how Solon came to power. Athens had been at war with _____, but after
winning? They gave up the possession?
o Because Solon dressed up as a slave, and said a poem that it is necessary to continue
He is then made leader of the forces as they go back to war for the island.
o This is important, because just like Pasistratus, he DOESN’t get to power
constitutionally. He also tricks the people.
Solon was actually before Pasistratus and he tries to prevent the rise of Pasistratus and beraves
at his people for embracing him as a leader.
Plutart tells us, even though he was very old, he harang at the citizens in the market place “not
to surrender their liberty”, that a tyrant would make all of them into slaves.
At the beginning Pasistratus and Solon were friends… and maybe even lovers.
Even at the end when Solon was raving against Tyranny. Pasistratus didn’t exile him. But instead
invited him into his house, and even used him as an advisor.
Athenians define tyranty as the opposite of democracy. YET Solon was advisor and maybe even
lover of the tyrant.
This is similar to how Athenians think about t