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Lecture 15

CLA233 Lecture 15 Notes

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Michael J.Dewar

CLA233 Lecture 15 Notes Soldiers - primary purpose – to defend Rome - secondary purpose – to take over and invade other lands - until quite late in Roman history, the army was a citizen militia - anyone who could fight and was a part of society – morally obligated to do so - Roman state did not provide things – not school, not armour - state - provide a stipend to compensate for money not earned – no actual salary - generally meant that they served as soldiers in the summer – since there was no fighting in the winter months - around 100 B.C. – Roman army switches to something more professional and permanent – still volunteers but those who made a career of the army - large proportion of soldiers by Augustus – trained soldiers who were not a citizen militia – but militia were the reserve who could be called upon - majority of the army was of professional soldiers - at the height of the Roman empire – soldiers were mainly non-Roman - pay in the Roman army – begin to pay a proper salary at the end of the term/service - after end of service – stipend, first in the form of land, later in money - service lasted around 20 years - soldiers of ordinary rank – not formally allowed to marry – because they are professionals - can retire early enough that they can have a “second life” - settlements that soldiers had girlfriends who were like common-law wives – by Roman Empire – Roman aristocrats – salary - give military training – no family links A Model Soldier - famous example of soldiers - lays down the original ideal of the farmer soldier - gives insight on what it is like to be a Roman soldier - background was ideal for a Roman soldier - “keener” – makes him particularly useful as a soldier - speech set in 171 B.C. – Rome as a rising power - context is the drafting of troops for a campaign in Macedonia - speaker – non-Roman, not even Latin – a Sabine, from the hill country north of Rome - Sabines as famously hardy, rough, and honest - Cato the Censor is also a Sabine - idea – belong to Rome, but not actually Roman - also stresses his farm heritage - says – honest, poor, loyal to Rome, respectable gamily, tight-knit family, chaste wife - given Rome sacred patriarchy – protection of future manpower for Rome - became a soldier 30 years ago – started at the bottom - at the bottom – not officer class – started out as an ordinary legionary – liked of an “allied” legionary - hastati – least heavily armed troops and least well equipped - maniple – smallest sized group/platoon - emphasis on how he earned his honour the hard way – the smallest platoon of the lowest rank - was discharged in Macedonia - volunteered again – Cato the Elder – Marcus Porcius Cato - likely had a connection to the family of Cato - so enthusiastic that he volunteers again - immediately volunteers to go to Spain - general – Cato the Elder – gives him the highest ranking platoon - volunteers a third time – incredibly rapid promotion – becomes first centurion - first centurion – leading centurion – likely because of his experience – three campaigns in three parts of the Roman empire - appears with the praetor Flaccus – in triumph – right to ride in a chariot – make to appear as an avatar of the conquering Jupiter - was in the part of the escort of Flaccus - Civic Crown – special award in which he showed bravery – highest honour a Roman could offer – received six times - typical of old system – as well as a harbinger of the new one – farm man and soldier – but also made a career out of it - on the cutting edge of extreme expansion of the Roman empire - also much money earned – not in salary but through looting - patriotism to Rome - not home – 22 out of 29 years - may have appeared strange to those before that time because of the civil militia that only served in the summer months for a period of time Discipline - unforgivable – desertion to the enemy - stretched on the rack until bones cracked or joints split apart - thrown to wild animals in the circus - soldiers given rights – body –
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