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Lecture 16

CLA233 Lecture 16 Notes

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Michael J.Dewar

CLA233 Lecture 16 Notes Imperialism I – Force - limits of the Roman empire – mainly geographically - west – Atlantic - north – frontiers – permanent markers – River Danube – natural boundaries - south – Sahara - east – not geographical – prominent empires – empire of modern-day Iran – once conquered modern-day Iraq, but abandoned it - conquest – key part of the Roman empire in the 2 ndcentury B.C. – Carthage - about 60% of young men aged 16-30 served in the Roman army - with time – staffed by non-Roman men, also Italian/Latin tribes - allies and subject peoples as well - ethnicity – conceived of in different ways during this time – Romans as a race, nation - example of Cato – Sabine - being Roman as culture and political allegiance – not race or language - year 212 A.D. – everyone in the empire who was not a slave was made a Roman citizen - explain their success by citizen militia – every Roman had gone through military service - to be a senator – at least three years of military service was required - after the law to serve in order to be a senator was removed – still was expected Roman Discipline Leads to Roman Supremacy - Vegitius tells how to run a Roman army – belief in the permanence of a professional army - marked emphasis on discipline and training - professional army in ancient world was not normal until the Roman army - professionalism – in part what makes the Roman army so powerful - Romans are always training – when not fighting - army – trains and builds - strict discipline – not common during the time - outside legion – sacrosanct bodies – but within the legion they were at the mercy of their commander - centurions – non-aristocrats of highest rank – badge of office was a stick made with vine stem – mark of authority to inflict punishment - during rebellion – centurions massacred by legionaries - life tough in the legion itself - in citizen militia – took any healthy person - in professional army – very choosy – took only the best - legionaries were provided with armour – very different from the typical armies - systematic training and equipment - winter spent drilling and training – preparing for warfare – therefore when war came – not scared because they knew what to do - Roman legions – thorough and ruthless – incredible investments made in time, men, and material - Josephus – Jew who becomes a Roman citizen – writes in Greek - history of rebellion he calls the “Jewish Wars” - subjection and destruction of the city of Jerusalem and temple of Herod the Great - Romans conquered war not trough luck but through bravery, strength, and discipline - draws on the differences between trained professionals and citizen militia - even when not in war – training exercises which mimic battles – even with weapons – unique for this time - always at the peak of their physical condition - Romans do in battle the same as in training – only difference is that they draw blood - each legionary had a pack – wooden stakes, hammers, and other materials to build a wooden camp/fortress - vast logistical pack-up as well – so that when the Roman army invades, they are already planning to stay – have everything they need - plan ahead – planning before action - designed as a warning to not rebel against the Romans - also benefits – traitor – Josephus - makes the right choice – becomes the advisor of Vespasian - given the “Roman bargain” – act in the Roman way and will be given the opportunity to rise in Roman society The Destruction of Jerusalem - in 70 A.D. - Romanized Jewish description - describing the utter destruction of the holy temples - Romans so angry at the Jews that the order of Titus was to destroy everything and kill everyone - Roman decision to kill ten thousand pe
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