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CLA233 Lecture notes

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University of Toronto St. George
Erik Gunderson

CLA233 H1 Intro Roman CultureLearning facts of Rome and how to use these facts January 17 2012 LivyRoman Expansion ndCarthage three major wars264241 218201 149146 BCE2 Punic war sees rdthe invasion and devastation of Italy itself3 Punic war results in the destruction of CarthageRoman expansion took over so much of Greece and Europe because anywhere the Romans went to help a group of people they would then never leave Greece Macedonian Wars 215 BCE Spain intervention and annexation of southern Gaul in 121 BCEThen Gallic wars Caesar is leaderRoman Assemblies Types of Assemblies comitia curiata comitia centuriata comitia tributa The constitutional framework of Rome Comitia Curiata archaicPatricians organized into 30 curiaeHoad exclusive power to grant imperiumA vestigial assembly in the republic ratify decisions of the comitia centuriataComitia Centuriata The army assemblyA citizen is a citizen soldierIf you are not qualified to bear arms then you are not a citizen slave or childRomans believe in inequality it is a cornerstone of their beliefsComitia TributaThe tribunal assemblyOverseen by the tribunes35 tribes and 4 urban it was very hard for the tribes to actually come to voteLegislative powersThe most democratic element of the republican constitutionPatrons the person who would stand up for you in courtThey are there to serve youThey follow you around if you are running for officeThe patrons are the more office class and the client is the more patron classThe first block of Romans constitutions defines what Patrons have to doIt is core to Roman life and is very importantA whole city can become clients of patrons during a war or when there is a conquering generalYou would no longer just be subjects who have been taken over you are now clients of the patrons of RomeClients are supposed to vote for their patronsOriginally the Romans did not have a secret ballot so it could be forcedThe map of Roman society is a tricky oneOne of Livys jobs is to show us the first draft of this mapHe is working on the birth of that LivyHis storyThe end of book 1 gets us to the end of the republican ageIn the regal period there are all sorts of institutions that are similar to previous priesthoods etc are all important to Rome as they change their constitutionWho are RomansWhere do they come fromWomenSpectaclesNature of debateFirst King Romulus Ancus MarkiusA new kingHe starts as a Nunka ends are a RomulusEach of the kings is evaluated by these two thingsHow holy is heHow good is he as a warriorRomes enemies think that a person who is really holy is someone who could be easily challengedBut Romans have formalized how to go to war and what the proper techniques are religiousWhenever he wins a victory he transfers those people to RomeThis is following customThere is on talk about what the logic of this would be it is just custom LivyRome is always growing with a massive influx of peopleRome is a land of opportunity there are lots of things for men to get involved inBeing Roman means knowing how to work the system and how to work any favors to your advantageAmbition get you far Serbius At first Romans would just know who would be the best to vote forBut and ambitious foreigner comes in and starts door to door canvassing to advertise himselfA good way to change loyalty is to change how many senators are inHe goes on campaign and winsThen he puts on popular showHe has a spectacleThe people who build things for the gods versus those who put on shows for the Roman peopleThere is aristocratic versus popular opinionHe has other grand building projects as well There are reasons to believe that Serbius was a slaveSerbius actually means slaveThere is a part told that he would not have been a slave due to the fact that a king would not give his daughter to someone so lowHis mother was not made into a slave she was kept in the palace and allowed to have a child possibly why he was allowed to riseLivy is inventing a backstory creating possible ways things could have worked out the way they didSerbius is going to turn into a kingTarquin is the victim of an assassination attempt but people do not know this is what happenedA man hides this fact and then helps Serbius become king Serbius begins the most important thing he doeshe organizes Roman society and makes it hierarchicalHe makes society based on rank and fortuneHe institutionalized inequalityEvery mans contribution should be in equal to his meansResponsibility is based on propertyThere is a first class persons who have over 100000 dollars and you would get 80 votesPerson who was a serving soldier who bought their own shield and sword society is the army the army is the society they would get 20 votesAll of the votes go the rich people and the lesser people get less and less as their position lessensThe common man under 11000 were formed into a single century who were exempt from military service they would only get 1 voteOnce a majority is reached the voting stopped and a decision was madeSo some people never even got the chance to voteThink of it as a corporation and the rich are the stakeholders who have the most to loose so they are given the most say With the expansion of the number of senators we also see another way of consolidating power by Serbiusp84He distributed land to people and then
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