January 12 th
Who was a Roman Citizen?
- Originally: Farmers, shepherds, and craftsmen on the banks of the Tiber
- People who immigrated to the city
- Members of colonies established in Italy and abroad
- Members of foreign communities to whom citizenship was granted
- Soldiers who had served for 25 years
- Aster 212 AD: basically everyone in the empire
- Athenians born of two citizenships
- If one of your parents aren’t a citizen then you are not, not the way Romans work.
What does “Rome” mean?
- Early: a central Italian city with a special form of government: a senatorial oligarchy
- Later: the seat of a military monarchy and a vast and expanding empire
o A military power with military interests
o A colonial power right of citizenship becomes a political tool. Romans don’t like to
o An economic power
Ages of Roman history
- Early: from the settlement to the foundation of the republic (Second millennium BCE to 500
- The Republican Period: 500 BCE-30 BC
- The age of emperors: 30 BCE-476 CE
The early period subdivided
- The iron age (900-700 BCE)
- The orientalising (i.e. “eastern”) period (700-580 BCE)
- The Archaic period (580-480 BCE)
The Republican Period
- Early (500-287 BCE0: in 287 BCE legislation passed by the commoners becomes binding on the
elites as well. “Two cities in one’ before then
- Classical (287-133 BCE): relatively stable and expansive
- Revolutionary (133-30 BCE): a series of social and political crises
- Not the only available story of early Rome. - Modern people say one thing, ancient people say different things.
- No particular reason to say “this is what Romans thought”
- Livy was well received.
- Virgil has a different story of early Rome, not incompatible with what Livy is saying, but he
follows the story of Aeneas
- Livy focused on Romulus and Remus, quickly went through Aeneas and his children.
- Greek Author around Livy, Diomeses? Talks about Rome as Greek city, just a tribe of the Greeks.
o Latin was just a dialect of Greek, not an accurate description of them.
o Goes back before Aeneas, the aborigines and immigrant, then spends time of Aeneas,
o 6 books to get to Brutus, where Livy ends book 1.
o Livy says there is almost no solid evidence for this period, basically meaning it could be
myth. Story of Rome gets further embellished with each retelling.
- Tend to retell Roman history as a whole, from Aeneas to today.
- “What does yesterday have to do with today?”
- Livy was first to write history without being a politician.
o Doesn’t mean he writes a counter-culture version, but explained by a new kind of
o Started writing shortly before 29 BCE, around the time at the end of extreme crisis and
the junction between the republic and the empire
- Originally scoop of text was vast, writing book 121 after year 14 CE. Complete 142 books,
covering all of Roman history to Livy’s own time.
- First five books are a unit, focus on personalities rather than politics and institutions, which he
talks about in perspective of individuals.
- Does not use original research, more of a literary figure than an academic.
- Monumental history, testimony to Rome itself.
- Motives, thoughts, speeches, personalities, focuses on the people and what was said, he doesn’t
know what was said years before he was born. “what kind of person was this, what was the
situation, what could he possibly of said here” he creates scenes.
- Giving introduction to a culture, who are we and where did we come from.
- Interested and power, and politics and how they relate to one another.
- First five books interested in legitimate and illegimate power
- What makes success is that the best man is in charge and he makes the best decisions for Rome.
- Relationship between past and present, tells you the history behind the objects your own city,
which are still around to the day.
- Talking about the greatness of Rome, and how he’s maybe not the best to write it and some
might write it better, but that is life.
- Scope of 7