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3. January 19th.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Erik Gunderson

January 19th Roman Republic and Constitution - 509-133 BC - Classical structure, stable ruling class: senate, aristocracy - Alliances between families, factional, short-lived. - Nobodies allowed to get too big as a “ruler,” one family does not get so influential that none of the others matter - Senate transitions from being patritional, broad but unspecified power. Consuls always consulting it, its business is everything that is not reserved for the common people o War and peace, political trials etc. - Consolidations of values, “customs of our forefathers” o Innovations often described as returning to old values o Conservative value system o “Good ole days” where they were at their strongest - 150 BC  200 years afterward there is idealism of how it was in the, politically motivated - Assemblies, but citizenry has no right of initiation. Not able to raise motions o Tribal assemblies you are presented with something you can vote on, then you vote on it. Has no relation to what you really want o Democratic and yet not - Changes in and after period: economic, structural issues, war brings in money, agri-business grows which causes problems for the local, small farmer as well as new materials - Money came in and people got soft and/or rotten o Understanding that money matters but relate it with morality Citizenship Categories Different standings: - Full roman citizenship - Latin rights (gives Roman property rights) - Freedmen o Originally have “Latin” rights o Later have Roman rights o Always still have obligations to their former master (who is now freedman’s patron) - Slaves - Foreigners (members of tributary, free, or allied cities) Republican citizenship Theoretical basis: - Equality of rights - Inequality of participation - “Geometrical” representation o Uneven stakeholders o Military, political, fiscal coordination o “Moderate democracy” - More responsibilities mean more rights - This basic principle is never radically changed Practical details: - Census represents the armed citizenry - Census compasses “community standing” broadly conceived - Census grades originally used to levy the citizenry according to ability to contribute - Census ranking remain the basis for voting units even after changes in army recruitment\ - Census supposed to be once every 5 years - Census in mandatory; failure punished by enslavement - Census carried out but censors and small staff in Rome - Carried out elsewhere by local magistrates who report back to Rome - Census registration via oaths of the citizenry Roman Magistracies General principles: - Unpaid - One-year - Extension if needed via prorogation - Gap between holding same office again - Colleagues - Veto by colleagues - Veto from above Exceptions to the General Principles: - Censors every 5 years - Dictator “as needed” (emergency office) - Dictator has no colleague - Dictator cannot face a veto Hierarchy of Offices - {Dictator} - Consul - Praetor - Aedile - Quaestor Offices with imperium (i.e. Military authority)  brings senate membership - {Dictator} - Consul - Praetor Offices without imperium (aedile, quaestor)
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