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4. January 24th.docx

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Erik Gunderson

th January 24 The Augustan Revolution Overview of Life: - Born Octavian in 63 BCE - Named Julius Caesar’s heir in 44 BCE  Caesar assassinated shortly after being named dictator for life - Defeats Antonius at Actium in 31 BCE: he now has no rivals for power - Receives the title Augustus in 27 BCE and imperium for 10 years - Receives his core powers in 23 BCE - Dies in 14 CE - Imperium  original root word for emperor, means general. - Reuses old categories to build his empire - “In my 19 year, on my own initiative and at my own extent, raised an army for free the state…” o Pretty much a boy, but raised an army and “freed” the state, notes who was consul at the time. o Refused to be dictator The Rise: - Aggressively pursues power granted to him by Caesar’s will - Mobilizes Caesar’s clients - Takes up arms against Caesar’s assassins - Takes us arms against former ally Antonius - Secures broad military and political influence - “Legitimizes” his position The Strategies: - Aggregate existing powers rather than claim new ones - Multiple simultaneous powers - Offices held in succession - Monopolize key military commands - Benefaction - Euphemism: never admit that there is substantial change afoot - “Don’t die” The key powers: - Imperium proconsulare: power over the army - Imperium consulare: power over the city of Rome - Tribunicia potestas: the right to veto anything  holds onto this power, doesn’t have to use it often because the people know not to make him do so - Multiple consulships The self-presentation - Enemies are “a faction” and/or “foreigners”; avoids the diction of civil war - Pietas: “filial piety” - Auctoritas: “prestige” and “influence” - Princeps: “first citizen”  I am just a citizen, not emperor or better than anyone else - Imperator: “general” - Augustus: “venerable” - Refusal of “excessive” honors - “Conservative” The Roman Emperors The Julio-Claudian Dynasty: - Augustus (27 BCE-14 CE) - Tiberius (14-37 CE) - Gaius (Caligula) (37-41 CE) - Claudius (41-54 CE) - Nero (54-68 CE) - Death of Nero, what comes next? - Caligula, Claudius and Nero are problematic emperors, but it doesn’t mean they were going to give up on the idea of emperors. The year of the four emperors: 69 CE - Galba o General in Spain, assumes the title of Caesar after Nero’s suicide in 68 - Otho o Angered when not named successor, Praetorian Guard at Rome names him emperor - Vitellius o Named emperor by the German armies, marches for Rome, defeats Otho in battle - Vespasian o Eastern armies back him; marches against Vitellius The Flavian dynasty - Vespasian (69-79 CE) - Titius (79-81) - Domitian (81-96) The Five Good Emperors (and one really bad one) - Nerva (96-98 CE) o Named emperor by senate after assassination of Domitian - Trajan (98-117) - Hadrian (117-138) - Antonius Pius (138-161) - Marcus Aurelius (161-180) - Commodus (177-180; 180-192) Imperial age transformations Continuity - Gradation still fundamental: there is a differentiated place for everyone - Census ranks are the same, but the citizen-solider who leaves the farm to defend Rome is a thing of the past - The different categories of citizenship abide, but more people are full rights over time Shifts in emphasis - Free citizens getting squeezed out of politics - Masses of slaves and freedman are economic competition - The army is the political base, but this army is not longer an army of Roman citizens at Rome - Army now a means of transforming foreigners into citizens The emperor’s hand - Emperor grants citizenship rights to individuals or whole communities - Emperor promotes new individuals into ranks of knights or senate - Emperor can revive old aristocratic individuals within grants - Emperor has direct of indirect influence at every stage in an aristocratic career The imperial house - Emperor has resources enough to become a senator more than 600x over - Emperor’s house has non-senatorial players in it o Women o Freedmen o Knights - Any power these have has come at the expense of the senators’ traditional powers Senatorial careers - Fewer old families - Ideal trajectory o Vigintivirate at 18-20 o Military tribune in a legion o Quaestor at 25 (admission to senate) o Aedileship at 27 is you want to climb higher o Praetorship at 30 o A military command o Consulate at 33 o Governor of a province o City prefect, manager of water supply Equestrian careers - A very diverse group with diverse fa
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