CLA260H1F (METHOD AND THEORY OF CLASSICS) January 11 2012 th
What is Classics?
Greece Major Chronological Periods
Bronze Age: c. 3000 – c. 1200 B.C.
Iron (or Dark) Age: c. 1200 – c. 800 B.C.
Archaic Period: c. 800 – c. 480 B.C.
Classical Period: c. 480 – c. 323 B.C.
Hellenistic Period: c. 323 onwards
Minoans on Crete: c. 2000 B.C.
Hellenistic Period begins with the death of Alexander the Great.
Rome Major Chronological Periods
Iron Age: c. 900 – c. 750 B.C.E.
‘Regnal’ Period: c. 750 –c. 500 B.C.E.
Roman Republic: c. 500 – c. 31 B.C.E.
The Principate: c. 31 B.C.E. – late 3D c. C.E.
Late Antiquity: roughly the 4 TH – 7THc. C.E.
Rome expulses their Kings and forms the Republic.
CLA260H1F (METHOD AND THEORY OF CLASSICS) January 13 TH 2012
Momigliano Italian and Anglo Scholarship
Engagement with people of Greek and Roman World ever since our
predecessors learned this material.
Greek Culture used Latin Texts
Romans were heavily influenced by the Greeks and the spread of their
culture has saved both civilizations
Engaging with centuries of work based upon the research of our
Dominance of Roman culture and Latin textual
Greek importance from the conquests of Alexander the Great
Greek important language of bureaucracy and aristocratic elite (administration)
trade and diplomacy (Egypt + Northern Syria)
Romans exposed to Greek Culture (6 c.)
Exposed by the Etruscans (Northern) Direct contact with Greek Sicilians
Roman culture to east and west
Latin as a language of bureaucracy
Eastern Mediterranean remained a Greek identity
Well educated Romans had to learn Greek
Western Empire (Western North Africa, Britain) remain with a Latin identity
Latin Language of the Church
After fall of Western Empire, they maintain a Latin identity
Classical part is unifying in Europe to show intellectual prowess (Latin)
400 A.D. (18 c.)
Latin Education, administration, method of communication
Run centralized kingdoms
Being part of the social elite
University Kingdoms 12 THcentury
Cicero Teaching = Model of a Proper Male Aristocrat
Roman past dominated by Latin texts
Textual not physical context
Aristotle’s thought of Philosophy + Science in Western Europe (Latin
(18 century) Winkelmann: Set a clear distinction of Latin and Greek Art
Preference for Hellenistic texts
German (Conventional Latin education)
Hellenists centered in Germany
Germans identified with small states who shared a cultural identity with no
French Kings (16 THc.) deliberately represented Roman identity in order to
assert their power
French Kings are rid of, Their political theory is dominated by Greek