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Lecture 19

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University of Toronto St. George
Ben Akrigg

CLA260H1S Method and Theory in Classics Session 19: Doing Greek Archaeology In Alcock and Osborne eds. Classical Archaeology (2007) see the chapter by Jack Davis; in the textbook see chapters 14, 15 and 21. Key moments and figures in the development of the discipline: • Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768) o An influential figure in spreading interest in ancient Greece in the mid-eighteenth century, though he was part of a larger phenomenon. o Winckelmann never did any fieldwork (and never visited Greece), but (from 1763, when he was appointed Papal Antiquary) had access to virtually all the sculpture excavated in Italy and most of what was exported from Greece. o Winckelmann was still largely driven by reading ancient literary texts; though he visited the excavations taking place at Herculaneum (which had started in 1738) and Pompeii (which started ten years later) he was highly critical of them. His scheme for the classification of Greek sculpture was derived from an earlier scheme for Greek poetry. • Greek independence o The waning power of the Ottoman empire made Greece, and antiquities from Greece more directly accessible (Lord Elgin’s acquisition of much of the sculpture from the Parthenon from 1801-1811 is the most famous example but was hardly unique). The Greek War of Independence (1821-30) resulted in a new nation-state whose leaders (especially, but not only, the newly-installed Bavarian monarchy) paraded the monuments of the classical past as the most important symbols of its identity. • A peculiar feature of archaeology in Greece is the presence of the foreign national schools of archaeology, founded in the wake of Greek independence. The biggest and most important are those which were founded in the 19 century, starting with the French School (The École Française d'Athènes or EfA) in 1846, but followed by the German School (the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut (DAI), Abteilung Athen) in 1874, the American School of Classical Studies at Athens (ASCSA) in 1881 and the British School at Athens (BSA) in 1886. There are now 17 such foreign schools with official recognition (the most recent is the Georgian School, founded in 1997). The Canadian Institute in Greece (CIG/ICG) was formally recognized in 1976. o There are tight controls on archaeological fieldwork in Greece; each foreign school can apply (to the Ministry of Culture) for three permits for excavation or survey projects each year, and a further three for collaborative projects with the Greek Archaeological Service. Only fieldwork with the sponsors
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