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Lecture 10

Lecture 10 - Papyrology II

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University of Toronto St. George
Christian Campbell

CLA260H1S Papyri Aug 1/12 Final Information • Aug 17th, 2-5 • 3 hours for final • 2 sections • 20 short answer Anything on a handout, power point, or on board • • Material from lectures (terminology, methodology, important people, places, things) • Heavier emphasis on lectures • 3 essay questions Achoice from 8 • • For essays: focused on large thematic/methodological questions • Draw from readings or examples in lectures • Be able to point to concrete example Power points up by the weekend • • Important readings: • 1-4, 9,10,13-20,27, 28 • Plus all other assigned readings including case study articles Oxyrhynchus • Extremely important archaeological site • In the UK, group called Egypt Exploration Fund founded, to fund missions to egypt to collect pa- pyri in egypt through excavation • Excavation through this time not regulated by egyptian government • 1887 Egypt Exploration Fund funded an Oxyryhnchus excavation • Ptolemaic and roman city • Led by two classicists from oxford: Grenfell and Hunt • Oxyrhynchus Polis = “The city of the sharp-nosed fish” • In the polemic and roman periods it was 3rd largest city in egypt • Admin centre for its region • Regional capital • Today its considered one of the most important archaeological site • Garbage heaps - landfills - a lot of archaeological importance • For over a thousand years in which the city was occupied people would dump garbage just out- side of town into these heaps • Not close to the nile so it wasn’t flooded, and it’s station in the desert allowed it to preserve • City was abandoned in 7th centuryAD • Excavation focussed on garbage heaps • Lots of papyri fragments recovered • During only four months of excavation the found 2 thousand documentary papyri and 300 liter- ary papyri Site excavated for 10 years periodically publishin gin off season • • Firs publication in 1889 • From 1910-1934 it was excavated by italians until stopped by egyptian government CLA260H1S Papyri Aug 1/12 • In the 80s the egyptian government paired up with barcelona to continue excavation • About 75 volumes published • Majority of finds were documentary texts • Fragments of previously lose works by Sappho, Callimachus, Simonides,Alcaeus, Euripedes, Aeschylus, Sophocles, Menander, et al. Fragments of known works by too many to mention • • Found lost gospels and non-canonical gospels • Menander important because none of his works survived the middle ages in manuscript form • So the only thing we had up until this excavation were fragments quoted by other authors Menander benefitted most by the study of papyri • • In early 20th century people began finding papyri containing lines of menander • The only extant play is the dyskolos • Vaudmer papyrus - Vaudmer owned this fragment Found in 1952 • • Not many areas of antiquity where there is still room to make new discoveries • But epigraphy and papyrology people are still finding new documents Hellenica Oxyrhynchia The “oxyrhynchus historian” • • This text was found n two separate papyri • First one found in 1906 (grenfell and hunt) • Second by the italians in 1934 20 pages of previously unknown 4th century historian • • Scholars have guesses theopompus, ephorus; more lean toward Crappies) • Deals with corinthian war 396/5, also treated by Xenophon’s hellenica, and Diodorus Sculls (1st century BC) • Begins at end of 5th and goes into 4th • Continuator of Thucydides • Significance for reliability of Diodorus and Xenophon • Because of the authors style, and the material he treats he is seen as a continuator of Thucydides • Tries to be objective (like Thucydides) • Not a lot of narrative embellishment or speeches • Important because: • Sheds light onto the reliability of previous historians • Diodorus and Xenophon don’t match up In 19th century more common to think Xenophons account more realiable • • He was alive at the time • Didn’t know what author Diodorus was using • When they found the Hellenica Oxyrhynchia the version matches up with Diodorus Seen as a high quality source • • Most likely Diodorus was using this source • Now the tendency is to give more weight to Diodorus Significance of Papyrus Discoveries for Known Texts CLA260H1S Papyri Aug 1/12 • Offer readings as much as a thousand years older than existing mss. (although older does not al- ways = better) • Still probably several years after event happened • Could come from corrupt tradition • Variant readings, new lines Homers Telemachy in the Odyssey • • Some people think it didn’t belong in the Odyssey • Recent findings more than double the known copies of the telemachy • Even the most well-known texts can have differing papyri with new lines and variant readings • Confirm existing readings • Insight into popularity Documentary Papyri • Private: letters (personal or business), records of private legal transactions, accounts, finances, religious documents • Public: documents concerning the interaction between state and individuals, pronouncements of the government and administration • Administrative abou
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