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Lecture 13

Lecture 13 - Archaeology II

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Christian Campbell

CLA260H1S ClassicalArchaeology Aug 13/12 What is ClassicalArchaeology? • Approach largely determined by one’s background • “ClassicalArchaeology” or “archaeology of the classical world”? • ClassicalArchaeology = distinct discipline or as a subdiscipline? Of archaeology? Or classical studies? • Suggests that it is apart from other forms of archaeology • And that the skills required are notably different • Versed in Greek and Roman culture • Archaeology of the classical world is rooted in social sciences, sharing methodology of archaeol- ogy • Both are true: classical archaeology needs to be done scientifically, but at the same time you need to be versed in the larger discipline of greek and roman studies in order to properly interpret • The difference between the two lies in the interpretation of the role of literary evidence • Classical world has the greatest quality and quantity of any other studied civilization, :. On a dif- ferent scale of literary output • Because of this it would foolish to just interpret as archaeological material and ignore this • Best to integrate the entirety of material • New archaeology didn’t like the reliance on literary texts - dirt archaeologists vs armchair ar- chaeologists For a long time people were using archaeological information only with a view as to where it • could help their interpretation of the literary output, ignoring things that didn’t fit into theories • This happened up until the mid-last-century but not anymore • In the second half of the 20th century to archaeology being the handmaiden of history the pendu- lum swung the other Now become more equalized where historians acknowledge archaeology and its affects on their • theories Eleusis andAthens • Eleusis sanctuary of demeter - Eleusian mysteries • Cult open to anybody who wanted to participate - slave or free, men and women • By the 5th century Eleusis was part of athenian territory (deme ofAthens) • Before that the traditional view is that it had been independent at least as late as 7th century based on literary evidence • Based on Homeric Hymn to Demeter which deals with foundation of the cult. The story is set heavily in Eleusis with no mention ofAthens anywhere in the poem • Also based on Herodotus book 1 about Telus - evidence of war between athens and Eleusis in which Eleusis defeated and became part of athenian territory. Others say it was the site of the battle of Megara andAthens :. Not hostile betweenAthens and Eleusis • Ceramic record in archaic period from Eleusis - look for separate ceramic tradition fromAthens; or evidence of a break or reintegration of athenian imports • Pottery styles proved the same in Eleusis as inAthens consistently throughout this period - no spike or drop to indicate hostility or takeover • No indication of Eleusis pre-athenian territory in the archaeological record CLA260H1S ClassicalArchaeology Aug 13/12 • Call for historians to be more consciences of using all available information - not relying heavily on literary without consulting archaeological Art History • Beginnings of classical archaeology based on artifacts and art • Up until Winckelmann no one was studying past the antiquarianism • He was the father of art history • Classical archaeology’s use of art history and text makes it different from other cultures studied in archaeology ForeignArchaeological Schools Particularly important in Greece • • Each wanted to be in charge of their own ‘big digs’ • Types of e
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