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Lecture 4

CLA364H1F – Hellenistic World (Lecture 4).docx

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Gillian Ramsey

CLA364H1F – Hellenistic World (Lecture 4) 9/18/2013 8:11:00 AM  Lecture 3 cont.  Heads south through Aria to Arachosia – area next to the Indus river valley  Sources are unclear about what Alex does while in Arachosia though it was an extensive part of his campaign – he established new cities and setup new satraps o Founded Alexandria (modern Khandahar) o Founded Alexandria in Caucasus (modern Begram) o Caucasus = mountains at the edge of the world  Bessus had claimed the Persian throne calling himself Artaxerxes – so Alexander decided to cross the ‘Hindu Kush’ mountains during the winter o Bessus anticipated this and came up to the north face of the mountains and burnt the countryside where Alex would have got his supplies  329 BC Alex crossed the Khawak pass of 3500 metres – when they got down things were quite tough b/c of Bessus’ scorched land attack  In spite of this Alex kept marching – Bessus panicked – retreated north over the Oxus river – he burnt his boats and was abandoned by the Bactrians who had supported him  Alex’s reached Drapscaca where he was able to get supplies and then they headed to Bactra (impressive old site) o Alex continued the process of founding new cities and also sending home/settling troops not fit for fighting o Continuously recruiting from the local population  Alex crosses the Oxus River - is met by satraps Spitamenes & Dataphernes who told him that they had captured Bessus and wanted to hand him over o Alex sent Ptolomy to capture Bessus o Ptolomy brings him back – Alex humiliates Bessus – mutilates his body, puts him on trial and then executes him  Sogdiana o Alex headed north from Bactria (though aristocrat rebellion had begun there) to Sogdiana o Alex engages here in much harsher punishments to populations who opposed his rule – when compared to his treatment of the Egyptians, Phoencians etc. o Alexander founds a new city at the ‘edge’ of the modern world – Alexandria Eschate (modern Khojen)  Spitamenes & Dataphernes recruited some Scythians to appose the Macedonians – Alex sent a force to deal with them (kills 1000 of them and the rest fled)  Persian satraps tactic – attack and retreat b/c they were fighting at multiple fronts – much more useful tactic than Darius’ pitched battle o They actually beat the Macedonians in a battle  Winter of 329/328 Alex spends winter at Bactria  problem: Death of Cleitus o Macedonian banquet o Cleitus began talking about the things his resented about his king o Cleitus and Alex engaged fighting o Alex interprets his anger as another conspiracy against him o Cleitus ran back into palace b/c he wanted to fight – Alex got a hold of pike from one his guards and stabs him right through o Event is important as it highlights worries that Alex has about his commanders – his nobles were so successful at this point there was continuous threat against his kingship  Alex comes to a favourable diplomatic positions with the Scythians  The rest of the Bactrian aristocracy was hiding out at the fortress of Sogdian Rock – he had 300 troops climb the fortress – they immediately surrendered o Alex has Oxyartes (the aristocrat at Sogdian Rock – who sided with Alexander) go to the Rock of Chorienes and get the other Bactrians to surrender, which they did o Alex makes Oxyartes a Satrap and marries his daughter  Lecture 4: India  Winter 328/7: Bactra the ‘Pages conspiracy’ o Hermolaus make a plot to kill Alex while they are serving as his body guard o Ptolomey realized what was going on and arrests them – stoned to death o The historian Callisthenes was killed as a part of this conspiracy b/c he had urged the pages to do something historical – they interpreted this as trying to kill the king, which is not what he intended but still paid the price  Spring 327 BC o Amyntas, satrap of Bactria o Alexandria – in – Caucasus (Kabul) for 6 months o Alex had sended scouts eastward into the Indus river valley to check it out – they were told that the locals would accept Alex as king  Fall 327 BC, Khyber pass o Hephaeston & Perdiccas > Peucelaotis & Indus R. o Alex > Choes (Hunar), Panjkora, Choaspes (Swat)  Came across the city of Nysa  Inhabitants said that they were Greeks descended from the God Dionysus – so him and is troops stayed at the city until he left for Aornos (a high mountain fortress) o Aornos siege, Burimar ravine  Last holdout for the tribes that controlled the areas  Alex wanted to take the fortress to secure support from locals based on his super human abilities  Force of 700 men climbed up over the fortification walls and took it  Winter 327 BC: Indus Valley o Alex met with the king of Abisares (modern Kashmir) – at this point Alex at c.100,000 troops o Alex then went to Taxiles and met with its king Taxila  Alex received 5,000 Indian solider – continued Eastward o Fought King Porus east of the Hydaspes River o May 326, battle of the Hydaspes  Alex continues his strategy of deception  River had a fast and high current – so he opts for a night crossing  Alex spread the rumor that he would wait until the river current went down before cro
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