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CSC258H1 (46)


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Computer Science
Steve Engels

TRANSISTORS  Conductivity of materials  Transistors Introduction o Eletricity can flow freely through a solid if there are free valence o Transistors form the basic building blocks of all computer hardware electrons in outter layer after the solid is formed  Allowed logical devices  modern computer o Elements’ conductivity depending on # eletrons in the it’s valence o Used for applications such as amplification, switching and digital logic shell and orbit of the valence shell design.  Eletroncs entering a material on one side traverse through the  Where do transistors fit elements through the valence shell o LOGIC GATE (made from) Transistors (based on) pn-  By exchanging positions with valence electrons of junctions (made from) Semiconductors elements  exit electron != initial electron  pn-junctions = a junction made from 2 materials a “p” and a “n”  Elements w/ full valence shell = not conductors  Eletricity Introduction  Higher outter orbit better flow b/c less attraction force from o Electricity is caused by the flow of charged particles, usually electrons protons in neucleus  Some materials allow flow better than others  Carbon bonds closer b/c lower outter orbit  ex. Metals vs. Rubber/Plastic (disallow eletrons to flow)  Silicon bonds further b/c higher outter orbits o Particle flow from of high electrical potential regions to low  Both have 4 eletroncs in the valence shell, shares w/ 4 electrical potential other of the element to complete orbit, but silicon  Similar to gravitational potential materials are better conductors o This potential is referred to as voltage o Semiconductor materials (silicon, germanium) straddle the boundary  How much electrical potential is in a source between conductors and insulators  Group = 0 V, charge energy are compared vs. the ground  behaving like one or the other, depending on factors like  Charges above 0 V (high voltage) wants a path to the ground temperature and impurities in the material (low voltage) o The rate of this flow is called the current  Eample Circuit Design o Circuit diagrams are composed of:  Sources  Voltage source & Current source o Semiconductor conductivity  Components (resistors, capacitors, inductors)  Semiconducotrs are solid and stable at room temp.  But energy can loosen the valence shell electrons  Connectors (switches & leads)
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