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Reference Guide

French Grammar - Reference Guides

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TM permacharts French Grammar French Grammar 2nd EDITION NOUNSARTICLES Nounsare words that name people, places or things (.can Words that accompany nouns; give information about nouns include objects, ideas, feelings or qualities); other words (forgender and number (noun is defined or undefined) example adjectives, verbs) can also be used as nouns DefiniteSame as the; indicates a specific object or name Nouns are sometimes preceded by articles; an article is placed IndefiniteSame as a,an; indicates a nonspecific object or name before a noun to see if it can be preceded by the article PartitiveSame as some; SingularPlural YPES OF NOUNS T indicates an Masc.Fem.Both amount of Common nounsdesignate whole classes of people or things something Definitele lales (for example une maison[a house], la fleur[the flower], un crivain land de lare [a writer]) Indefiniteununedes used if following Proper nounsrefer to specific persons, places, or things Partitivedude la word begins with (for example La France[France], Les Franais[the French people], a vowel Monsieur Baudelaire[Mr. Baudelaire]) Proper nouns are always capitalized; they may be used as common nouns (for example du champagne[champagne], le judas [the Judas]) ADJECTIVES Some common nouns may be used as proper nouns Words that modify or qualify nouns; they take the number and (for example La Gloire[Glory], La Fortune[Fortune]) gender of the noun which they modify Simple nounsconsist of one word; composednounsconsist of more than one word (for example unepomme de terre[a potato]) NONQUALIFICATIVE (DETERMINATIVE) ADJECTIVES Do not express a quality GENDER NUMBER Accompany the noun and add a certain determination Each noun has a grammatical gender(masculine or feminine); (for example: un homme[a man], le chien[the dog]) true for all nouns, even those that refer to objects and concepts Possessive The ending of a noun (suffix) is sometimes a clue to its gender Determine noun while adding grammatical idea of possession Each noun has a grammatical number(singular or plural) Agree in number and gender with the word they describe, One way to form a plural is to add s(not usually pronounced) and in person with the person who possesses MASCULINE FEMININE ENDINGS Sole PossessorMany Possessors SingularPluralSingularPlural In general, feminine MasculineFeminine Masc.Fem.BothBothBoth form adds a mute (ami)e(amie) eto the masculine 1st personmon mamesnotrenos er, ier(berger)re(bergre) Some words change 2nd personton tatesvotrevos form (for example en, on(chien)ne(chienne) un coq[rooster], 3rd personson sasesleurleurs an, ain, in(faisan)e(faisane) une poule [chicken]) DemonstrativeNumeral Others use the el, eau(colonel)le(colonelle) same form (for Specify the noun Indicate number, order, or rank of c(Franc)que[c](Franque) example un lve;that will be things being talked about f(veuf)ve[f](veuve) une lve[student])(or has been) Two types are cardinal(for example, talked about Some words have ungaron[oneboy]) and ordinal(for t(candidat)e(candidate) neither feminine Include ce, cet,example, le premiergaron[the first et(cadet)te(cadette) nor plural forms cette, and cesboy]) numeral adjectives) (un agent[agent x(vaniteux)se[x](vaniteuse) Relative MascFem (s)MascFem (pl) {no feminine}]) en, eur, teur(crieur)se[r](crieuse) Relate a clause to the lequellaquellelesquelslesquelles antecedent they duquelde laquelledesquelsdesquelles introduce; mainly FORMING THE PLURAL used in administrative auquel laquelleauxquelsauxquelles Most plurals are formed by adding s(un homme; des hommes or legal language [man; men]) and literary texts Some cases have 2 different plural forms, depending on meaning Indefinite (le ciel[the sky], les cieux[skies, heaven], les ciels[sky, climate]) Join the noun to add a vague idea about quality, resemblance or Some nouns are used either only in the singular or plural (le fer difference [iron], lair[air], SingularPluralaucunanymaintmanyquewhat les environs [the surroundings]) s, x,z(une croix) (des croix)autreothermmesamequelquesome Some nouns change au, eu(un bateau)x(des bateaux)certaincertainnulnonetoutall meaning from al(un cheval)aux[al](deschaqueeachplusieursseveral singular to plural chevaux) (le sort de lhumanit Interrogative [the fate of humanity], ou(un sou)s(des sous) les humanits Pose a question about identity, rank, or quality of the person or ai, ail(un chandail)s(des chandails) classiques[classical thing designated by the noun humanities]) Include quel, quelle, quels, and quelles 19992012 Mindsource Technologies Inc. 1 FRENCH GRAMMAR1550808214 www.permacharts.com
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