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Reference Guide

French Linguistics - Reference Guides

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TM permacharts French Linguistics French Linguistics 2nd EDITION OVERVIEWINTRODUCTION TO PHONETICS Linguisticsis the general or comparative HE GOAL OF COMMUNICATION T science (or study) of a language; linguists Phonetics(la phontique) is Communication transfers information from a observe, rather than prescribe, the way a the study of the sounds of speaker to a listener (and viceversa) language works the language in their This process consists of production(la production; A common attitude towards a language is that concrete (physical) realities, encodage), transmission(la transmission), and it is immutable (that is, there is a proper way independent of linguistic reception(la rception; dcodage) of speaking); however, linguistics has repeatedly function The information being transferred is referred to demonstrated that this is not true, and that Phonetics allow us to as signal(signal); the language being used is languages change over the course of time describe how sounds are referred to as code(code) French began as a local dialect(patois) based produced and perceived; on vulgar (streetlevel) Latin imported to Gaul it studies the physical, Example: Traffic lights, gestures, and picture by the Romans; it emerged and evolved from a physiological or articulatory signs are visual signals of communication particular patois that succeeded over others aspects of language The French linguistic system is made up of 6 Articulation(la phontique The code consists of communicative units levels of language: sentences(phrases), clauses (units) and rules(rgles) articulatoire) describes the (propositions), words(mots[about 50,000]), human phonetical syllables(syllabes[a few hundred]), phonemes production system from a LINGUISTIC COMPONENTS FUNCTIONS (phonmes[36]), and small units of sound biological standpoint (for R. Jakobson (1963) proposed these linguistic (traits[7 major units]) example, how we make components and functions sounds) ORAL VS. WRITTEN FRENCH Acoustics(la phontique ComponentFunction acoustique) studies the contextecontextreferentiellereferential Oral(spoken) French is a series of sonorous propagation of sound and signals that are understood as a means of destinateuraddresseremotiveemotive its physical characteristics, communication; writtenFrench is a series of messagemessagepoetiquepoetic the sound of speech, and visual signals that are understood as a means of so on destinataireaddresseeconativeeffective communication Auditory phonetics contactcontactphatiquephatic Oral language is much older and more widely (La phontique auditive) codecodemetalingmetaling used than written language; the oral code describes the human uistiqueuistic (language) changes more or less rapidly hearing apparatus and the (depending on social and economic factors), but The context componentis made up of both decoding of the sounds of it is always evolving extralinguistic factors (for example, entities, speech The written code(language) usually slows concepts of the external world) and linguistic The human phonetical down the process of change of the oral content production system consists language; it serves as a norm, and includes all The addresser componentis the person of 2 subsystems the grammar rules (parts of speech, verb initiating the production of the message The vocal system conjugation, and so on) The message componentis the particular form (le systme phonatoire) The degrees of oral language include literary, taken by the information; the same message allows us to vocalize current, familiar, and vulgar; the degrees of can be expressed in different waystones of produce a basic sound written language include artistic, literary, and voice (for example, sarcasm) (the voice) and the familiar The addressee componentis the person articulate system receiving the code (le systme articulatoire) TWO KINDS OF GRAMMAR allows us to modify that The contact componentis the physical basic sound so as to Normative grammar(la grammaire normative) connection between communicators produce a variety of explains how the language works as a system, The code componentconsists of the rules and different sounds so as to teach the usage (sometimes referred to linguistic units used in such a way as to ensure as proper usage [bon usage]) of the language Phonology(la phonologie) understanding is the branch of phonetics Normative grammar includes all the grammar The referential functionprovides the concerned with the sounds rules (parts of speech, verb conjugation, and so information transferred by the message in a of a language and their on) linguistic or extralinguistic context function within the Reasoned grammar(la grammaire raisone) The emotive functionis based on the person language (for example, the explains structure and functioning of the initiating the production (for example, a person minimal sounds that allow language from historical, psychological, and may speak in different tones for different us to distinguish between linguistic viewpoints moods, such as fear) words and syllables) The poetic functionis based on the message Phonology analyzes the LINGUISTIC DIVISIONS and all the different forms it can take; a speaker distinctive or differentiative has varying degrees of choice Since language is composed of sounds, words, function of language The effective functionis based on the person and constructions, reasoned grammar consists The smallest units of sound receiving the message, and the means utilized of several parts are called phonemes to convince (or elicit a response from) this person Phonetics(la phontique) is the study of the (phonmes); they have no The phatic functionverifies whether contact is sounds of the language semantic meaning on their maintained during communication own Syntax(la syntaxe) is the study of constructions The metalinguistic functionis based on the (that is, the way words are put together to form Phonemes consist of 16 code itself (for example, repeating someones a sentence) (verbsubject agreement, functions, vowels, 17 consonants (plus instructions,directions or words to ensure and so on) one for borrowed words), understanding) and 3 semiconsonants Lexicology(la lexicologie) is the study of words 19972012 Mindsource Technologies Inc. FRENCH LINGUISTICS 15508082221
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