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Reference Guide

Pharmacology - Reference Guides

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University of Toronto St. George
Computer Science

TM permacharts Pharmacology Pharmacology 2nd EDITION PHARMACOLOGY BASICS harmacodynamic principles p harmacokinetic processes p AD bsorption Movement of drug into the bloodstream oseResponse The relationship between the size of the drug dose and the RATE determines how rapidly drug effectsRelationshipsintensity of the graded response it elicits in the body begin AMOUNT determines intensity of Properties: maximal efficacy, relative potency, and safety effect IV instant,complete IM, SC DrugReceptor Receptors are cellular components that bind drugs, rapid, capillary wall barrier Oral variable, Interactionsproducing the effects Drugs mimic (agonists) or block G I epithelial cells, capillary wall barriers (antagonists) regulatory molecules Selectivity of a drug to a Plasma Drug Minimum Effective Concentration (MEC)few receptors improves safety Drugs with high affinity are Levels is the level below which therapeutic effectsstrongly attracted to their receptors, and elicit responses at low will not occur Toxic Concentration (TC) isdoses A drugs intrinsic activity reflects the effect it has on the level where toxic effects begin toeceptor function, shown in its maximal efficacy r appear Therapeutic Range is the level Patient Individuals vary in the dose of a drug required Influenced by etween the MEC and TC b Variabilitybody surface area, age, tolerance, diet, genetics, bioavailability, D istribution Movement of drug into cells drug interactions, compliance level, pathophysiology The ED50 (effective dose) is the standard dose required to produce Metabolism Enzymatic action on the drug, primarily desired therapeutic effect in 50 per cent of the population a epatic h Therapeutic The ratio of a drugs LD50 (lethal dose) to its ED50 Excretion Primarily through urine but also bile, I ndex Measures the safety of a medication weat, saliva, breast milk, exhalation s Drug Direct chemical, pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic Half Life Time required for drug concentration to Interactions interaction decrease by 50 per cent U.S. SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES S chedule 1Schedule 2Schedule 3Schedule 4Schedule 5 High potential forHigh potential for abuse;Less potential for abuse;Low potential for abuse;Low potential for abuse; abuse, such asprescription required, such asprescription required,prescription required, suchno prescription required, heroin, LSD,opium derivatives, shortactingsuch as chlorphentermineas chlordiazepoxide,pharmacy dispensed, marijuanabarbiturates, amphetaminesglutethimidediazepam, meprobamatesuch as buprenorphine DRUG CLASSIFICATIONS RELATED TO BODY SYSTEM Legend: G Generic, T Trade, R Route, D Dosage, H Half Life, PA, B, C, D, or X Pregnancy Category (A, B, C, ARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM C D, or X), PK Pharmacokinetics, CSE Common Side Effects Antianginals G DiltiazemAdministration: R Oral, IV D 180 to 360 mg tid PO, IV 0.25 mgkg over 2 min; then 0.35 mgkg if no response, T Cardiazemcontinue 5 to 15 mgkg for up to 24 hrsAction: Calcium channel blocker, reduces cardiac work, peripheral artery ilatorPK:A 30 to 60 min H 3.5 to 9 hoursCSE: Dizziness, headache, fatigue, nausea, edema, flushing, PC d G NifedipineAdministration:R Oral, SR D 10 to 20 mg tid Action: Calcium channel blocker, antihypertensive PK: A 20 mins Procardia, Adalat H 2 to 5 hours CSE:Dysrhythmias, dizziness, headache, blurred vision, sleep disturbances, edema, angina, flushing, PC T G NitroglycerinAdministration: R SL, IV, Topical D SL 1 tab q 5 min x 3 prn Action:Nitrate, coronary vasodilator T Nitroglycerin, NotrostatPK: A 1 to 3 min (varies with route) H 1 to 4 min CSE: Headache, apprehension, PC, postural hypotension, rash, T ridel, Nitrobid vertigo G VerapamilAdministration: R Oral, IV D 75 to 225 mgd, 5 to 10 mg IV Action:Calcium channel blocker, antihypertensive T Isoptin, CalanPK:A 30 min (varies) H 3 to 7 hrs CSE:Dizziness, insomnia, impotence, anxiety, nausea, constipation, headache, PC Antiarrhythmics G DigoxinAdministration: R PO, IV D 0.125 to 0.25 mgd PO Action:Cardiotonic, Cardiac Glycoside, antidysrhythmic LanoxinPK:A 30 to 120 min H 30 to 40 hrs CSE:Headache, drowsiness, GI upset, dysrhythmias; Monitor apical, PA T G LidocaineAdministration: R IM, IV D 300 mg IM, 1 to 4 mgmn IV Action: Type 1A, reduces, antidysrhythymic, diastolic T Lidocaine depolarization PK:A 5 to 10 min IM H Biphasic 8 min: 1 to 2 hr CSE: Drowsiness, nausea, fatigue, headache, b radycardia, dizziness, hypotension, PB G QuinidineAdministration:R PO, IM, IV D 200 to 300 mg tid or qid Action: Type 1A, antidysrhythmic, decreases myocardial T Quinalan, excitability PK:A 0.5 to 3 hrs H 6 to 8 hrsCSE: Headache, dizziness, hypotension, bradycardia, vision changes, uinaglutenausea, diarrhea, cinchonism, PC Q G PropranololAdministration: R PO, IV D10 to 30 mg tid or qid Action:Beta adrenergic block PK:A 20 to 30 min H 3 to 5 hrs T InderalCSE: GI pain, bradycardia, nausea, hypotension, impotence, PC Antihypertensives G CaptoprilAdministration:R PO D 25 mg bid or tid Action: ACE inhibitor PK:A 15 min H 1.5 to 2 hrs T CapotenCSE: MI, thrombocytopenia, ulcers, proteinuria, cough,rash, angioedema, nephritic syndrome, pruritus, PC G ClonidineAdministration: R Oral, Transdermal D 0.2 to 0.8 mgd in 3 doses Action:Centrally acting sympatholytic agent CatapresPK: A 30 to 60 min H 12 to 16 hrs CSE:Drowsiness, sedation, dry mouth, rash, headache, constipation, PC T G MinoxidilAdministration: R PO, Topical D 5 to40 mgday Action: Vasodilator, reduces blood pressure PK:A 30 min T Loniten H 4.2 hrs CSE:Bronchitis, edema, Twavechanges, sinusitis, PC 20032012 Mindsource Technologies Inc. 1 PHARMACOLOGY 1550809180
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