CAS350H1 Lecture 4: CAS350 Lecture 4 Korea

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Contemporary Asian Studies
Dylan Clark

CAS350 Lecture 4 Korea: Targeting of Young Koreans • Interpellation (Althusser) o How these Koreans were taught to be “Korean” ▪ there is no stable essence of Korea, no right way to be Korean ▪ there is a Korea has it exists in conversations, discourses and practices o Interpellation = call out the name “people”, “woman”, “man” and see who recognize that phase ▪ they are made through interpellation but not described as already being there • Hegemony o the dominant ruling ideology • Imagined Community (Anderson) o nation is not fictitious • Japanese colonization of Korea o continuity between the colonial era and the post-colonial era o a complete and total break with the past o Colonialism to post-colonialism is not a complete break, but continuity of ideologies, institutions etc. Both readings: Problems as a discursive situation • Look at problems that arise with managing women, men, Koreans • where is the state struggling • and state attempts to engineer these problems • state efforts to engineer women to be women, men who knew to be men, “Koreans” who knew how to act Korean properly o problems to get those people to behave Hwang Reading • Japanese colonial uses of the school as an instrument of domination • The continuity of schooling in Korea in the post-colonial Korea to control and ideology mold them into subject objects in the developmental state  modernizing Korea • Problems: implementing loyalty to Japan o Majority of Koreans never were able to embrace their identity as colonial subjects • the ideology of the nation state imagines there is a kind of essence that inhabits people and cuts across class lines Moon Reading • Pg. 46  talking about the mass mobilization of men o all people on a modern nation somehow subscribed to this o activation of new ideology, that all people inhabits this share substance o pre-modern Korea, people stayed in their class and then there’s military o people didn’t see themselves as inhabiting Japanese or Korean before o profoundly ideological transformation • Problem with this: we supposedly have men/Korean and Korean/men so men would be in the military – more aggressive o Pg. 47  hard to convince many Korean men to join the military o colonial era – negative image o Koreans suffered from Japanese imperial army o during civil war: horrendous experiences in the military: poorly trained, unequipped o male role in the family, not want to get killed because need to provide for the family o in a country with a long Confucian association, the scholars have a high place in society o Pg. 47: “men of the pen….” ▪ Hegemonic masculinity multiple masculinities, dominant/hegemonic variety ▪ In any society, there are preferential of masculinity that is deemed hegemonic o shifting away from this older Confucian masculinity and re-engineered a new dominant which is more masculine o there is no stable form of masculinity/femininity, it is contextual based on one finds oneself is o gender, masculinity/femininity is always in flux o we imagine the continuity of the female because of the female body, which seems to be continuous overtime, same for male o we imagine the physical places seem to give an internal undying essence, but there is only Korean masculinity in context o Pg. 47/48  problem of colonial rule, Confucian masculinity, the Korean War/Civil War itself, Why you don’t want to join military (get killed), no historical experience that participation in military is beneficial for you/family, the harshness of baric life because Japanese implemented militarism but vicious with Korean army • Pg. 49  the insertion of practices that are inserted into rituals o the ritual transformation of civilian into soldier o transformation from a civilian into a soldier o to convince them, they say masculinity is already inside them o awakened them o to convince people through discipline, intensity of training • Pg.49 middle  men about women o men is to learn certain behaviours are feminine/masculine o and as a male, is to see the true essence of self – being male o you learn the traits and behaviour are different from your own o this ideology is banishing the yang and see the yin as alienated himself • Ritual transformation through ritual from civilian to solider • Pg. 50  torturous technique, so one recognize oneself as a soldier o “To secure the truth of a hegemonic femininity….” o Moon Pg. 66 ISAS: family, church, school, TV, Labour unions, media ▪ you learn trough family of gender ideologies ▪ church learn the bible and respect God ▪ school, learn to respect father’s authority, men are men, women are women ▪ media/TV, look around society and notice patterns of gender roles o Homologous views where all ISA seemed to reflect the truth of the others ▪ so it doesn’t seem invented because each one reflects the natural cohesiveness of another o These are rituals inserted into practice – Althusser ▪ you learn to ritualize the gender throughout the day so you begin to understand yourself as a man/woman • These trues will seem to be reflected from one institution to another • These homologies points to the obviousness and naturalness of these truths, so it becomes widespread in its performance o it’s not a stable system • Why does it take years of instructions for being a female/male if it’s already there waiting to come out? Anderson • instead of imagining that “Koreanness” is there, do not wait for the nation to be activated • Nations exists because we imagine them, there is a share substances that goes through all this body • The instruction of that imagined community • similarly, we don’t imagine men and female to be awakened to know wh
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