CSB428H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Counterstain, Centromere, Hybridization Probe

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Published on 25 Jul 2016
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Lecture 2: Genome Organization and Molecular Evolution
Sugar links together adjacent phosphate bonds at its 3’ and 5’ ends
3 x 10^-12 = pico from “picogram”
Can make DNA single stranded by adding heat
More C-G pairs in DNA = more stable DNA strand since it had more force (hydrogen
bonds) holding it together
Tm = temperature at which ½ of DNA has been converted into the double stranded form
WHY DOES SS ABSORB MORE THAN DS? SS is more flexible, no hydrogen bonding to
other strand
Why does corn have more genes encoding proteins than humans?
oPlants have to be able to sense and respond to a variety of things in their
environment (Ex. Lawn mower cutting/killing a plant)
oHumans can just go in houses and move around since we are mobile organisms
(therefore don’t need more genes necessarily to respond to our environment)
In situ = in place
Experiment – want to know which chromosome it is located on
oGet target DNA (mitotic) and purify them and place them on a glass slide, heat
the slide to denature it to single stranded DNA, put probe on denatured
chromosome to see if what you added can find its target on the chromosome,
matched with probe (with biotin), avidin binds to biotin so you can see
everything, look at slide under fluorescence microscope (excite fluorescence),
counterstain DNA  found near centromeres
Biotinylated DNA probe = addition of a chemical to a part of the DNA that allows
detection
Pseudogene – suffered a lot of mutations so that they lose their function
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com

Document Summary

Sugar links together adjacent phosphate bonds at its 3" and 5" ends. Can make dna single stranded by adding heat. More c-g pairs in dna = more stable dna strand since it had more force (hydrogen bonds) holding it together. Tm = temperature at which of dna has been converted into the double stranded form. Ss is more flexible, no hydrogen bonding to other strand. Why does corn have more genes encoding proteins than humans: plants have to be able to sense and respond to a variety of things in their environment (ex. Lawn mower cutting/killing a plant: humans can just go in houses and move around since we are mobile organisms (therefore don"t need more genes necessarily to respond to our environment) Biotinylated dna probe = addition of a chemical to a part of the dna that allows detection.