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Reference Guide

Romeo & Juliet - Reference Guides

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Fall 2015

Department
Computer Science
Course Code
CSC495H1
Professor
all
Chapter
Permachart

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Romeo & Juliet
Act I Introduction • Warring feud between Capulets and Montagues
• Romeo and Juliet meet and fall in love • Paris wants to marry
Juliet
Act II Development/rising actionTybalt challenges Romeo • Romeo and
Juliet secretly marry at Friar Lawrence’s cell
Act III Climax • Death of Mercutio • Romeo slays Tybalt • Pattern of death
and revenge begins • Romeo is banished from Verona
Act IV Denouement/falling action • Capulet hastens the marriage date
Juliet takes sleeping potion • She is found dead yet buried alive
Act V Conclusion • Romeo hears of Juliets death • Messenger is delayed
• Death of Romeo, Juliet, Paris, and Lady Montague
Civil feud between the Capulet household and the Montague household
Suspicion of plague in Verona delays the messenger
• Bodily (physical) love (e.g., it is joked about by Romeo’s friends)
• Infatuation; flowery, Petrarchan love-sickness (e.g., Romeo and Rosaline)
• Romantic (courtly) love; object of desire (the woman) had to be unobtainable (e.g., married, dead) and both lovers had to
be chaste (e.g., initially, Romeo’s love for Rosaline; Romeo and Juliet, although they slept together, were prevented from
being together by various obstacles, such as their families, Juliet’s forced marriage, and their eventual deaths)
• Conventional love (e.g., Juliet is expected to participate in an arranged marriage with Paris, according to conventions)
• True love (e.g., Romeo and Juliet love each other emotionally, spiritually, and sexually; they are committed to each other in
marriage; they are willing to die rather than be unfaithful)
• False love (e.g., Romeo thought that he loved Rosaline, so he created artificial feelings, even though he did not know her;
the Nurse, and Mercutio, falsely believe that love and sex are the same thing)
Parental love (e.g., the Montagues’ and Capulets’ love for their respective children and wanting what is best for them)
Filial love (e.g., Romeo and Mercutio are very good friends who would do almost anything for each other)
Love vs. hate (e.g., Romeo and Juliet’s love vs. the hatred between the Montagues and the Capulets; dueling deaths of
Mercutio, Tybalt, and Paris; suicide of Romeo and Juliet is overshadowed by their love for each other)
The play takes place over a period of five days (Sunday to Thursday)
The courtship is rushed
• Capulet makes haste in pushing up the wedding
• Friar John is delayed in delivering the message to Romeo
• Romeo dies just before Juliet awakens; bad timing
• Many near misses occur due to poor timing
• Young lovers (Romeo and Juliet) are juxtaposed with older pairs
• Passion and impatience of youth are contrasted with moderation and knowledge of age
• Romeo and Juliet mature over the course of the play; they play roles of both children and adults
• Friar Lawrence and Nurse play parental roles for the young lovers
• From the beginning, the relationship between Romeo and Juliet is ill-fated (e.g., Romeo finds out about the Capulets’
party from an illiterate servant; he ends up in the Capulets’ orchard; Mercutio is killed under his arm)
• Lovers arestar-crossed … death-marked; they have no choice
• Despite the actions of Romeo and Juliet, fate intervenes (e.g., timing is off, messages are lost)
• Fate is foreshadowed through dreams (e.g., Romeo dreams that Juliet has died)
• Providence plays a part; it is a Christian play (e.g., Romeo, Juliet, and Friar Lawrence call upon higher powers for
assistance; Friar Lawrence calls their deaths a work of heaven”)
A higher power may be involved in bringing together the Montagues and the Capulets
• Imagery of the sun represents life and love (Juliet is the sun …” )
• Even in darkness, the lovers find day in one another
• Young lovers display the light of love in the middle of a dark family feud
• References to stars recur
• Darkness is used to represent fear and evil (e.g., the Capulet burial tomb is as dark as night)
• The play begins in civil uproar in a divided city
• Duel between Tybalt and Mercutio escalates the animosity
• Prince unites the families at the end of the play; he makes them promise not to fight in the future
• As so much blood was spilled, the tragic pattern may begin again
• In order to restore the order, Romeo and Juliet must be sacrificed (payment for injustice)
• Petrarchan poetry is used to illustrate romantic love
• Puns and witty phrases are used by Mercutio and Benvolio
• Romeo and Juliet meet and speak in the form of a sonnet; formalized love talk
• Language reflects the station of the characters (e.g., Nurse uses bawdy, loving imagery)
• Language also reflects moods and feelings (e.g., sarcasm, sadness, true love)
Words become more expressive and complex as the characters mature
• In tragedy, characters tend to become isolated from those around them
• Juliet is abandoned by her parents, the Nurse, and the Friar; finally, Romeo leaves her behind in death
• Several scenes take place in public squares in Verona
• Much of the play takes place in the Capulet house and in the Capulet
courtyard
Other locations include the Friar’s cell, gardens, and the Capulet burial vault
Some time is spent in Mantua
• Play occurs over a period of 5 days in mid-July; Sunday to Thursday
Day 1 Act I, Scenes 1-5; Act II, Scenes 1-2
Day 2 Act II, Scenes 3-6; Act III, Scenes 1-4
Day 3 Act III, Scene 5; Act IV, Scenes 1-3
Day 4 Act IV, Scenes 4-5
Day 5 Act V
• Born 1564; died 1616
• Playwright, actor, and poet; credited with writing 37 plays and 152 sonnets
• Plays are divided into the early plays (e.g., The Taming of the Shrew), the
comedies (e.g., Much Ado About Nothing), the histories (e.g., Henry V ),
the tragedies (e.g., Romeo & Juliet ), the problem plays (e.g., Measure
for Measure), and the romance plays (e.g., The Winter’s Tale)
Written around 1595 (one of the most famous love stories in the world)
• Analogous to Hero and Leander; Pyramus and Thisbe; Tristan and Criseyde
• Based on Arthur Brooke’s The Tragicall Historye of Romeus and Juliet (1562)
• Tragedy of fate; no tragic flaw and no moral weakness in the lovers
• Forces of hatred between the houses fuel the tragedy
Romeo Young, noble son of Montague household • Undergoes growth in maturity over course of the play
Infatuated with Rosaline; spins love-sick poetry • Falls in love with Juliet • Displays high emotions
(melancholy, true love, hysteria) • Gentle and responsible (e.g., he turns down Tybalt’s first challenge
to fight) • Slays Tybalt to avenge Mercutio • Isolates himself from friends and family for Juliet
Hasteful and impetuous • Banished from Verona • Finds true friend in Friar Lawrence • Bravely
enters Verona to find Juliet • Kills himself with poison when he finds Juliet dead (actually asleep)
Juliet Young, noble daughter of Capulet household • 13 years old • Matures over the course of the play
• Falls in love with Romeo and secretly marries him • Finds an ally in the Nurse • Later breaks her
bond with the Nurse • Submits to her parent’s will • Later defies her father’s wishes to marry Paris
• Strong-willed, intelligent, and independent • Isolates herself from her family • Bravely takes the
sleeping potion • Commits suicide when she finds Romeo dead
Mercutio Best friend of Romeo • Constant and true Witty; uses intelligent word-play and puns • Shows
concern over Romeo when he dwells in melancholy • Courageous in battle
Tybalt Cousin of the Capulets Fiery temper • Deep hatred of the Montagues • Swears revenge on
Romeo for coming to the Capulet’s ball • Provocative; initiator of violence • Speaks to Romeo with
disdain • Quick to jump to the sword; fierce fencer • Slays Mercutio • Killed by Romeo
Paris Kinsman of Prince Escalus • Desires to marry Juliet • Does not concern himself with reciprocal love
Young gallant • Well-born and wealthy • Romeo’s rival in love • Speaks in flowery phrases of
praise • Quick to judge Romeo in the tomb • Slain by Romeo
Benvolio Friend to Romeo • Peaceful • Teases his friend about desiring Rosaline • Tries to stop the fighting
with Romeo • Well-spoken; he explains the fray to the Prince and the other citizens of Verona
• Cares about Romeo • Attempts to placate Mercutio’s jests
Capulet Juliets father • A wealthy patriarch • Bitter foe of Montague • Does not listen to his daughter’s
wishes • Stubborn and outspoken • Loves his daughter deeply • Moods change quickly from
amiable to stormy
Lady Capulet Juliets mother • Submits to her husband’s wishes • Mourns cousin Tybalt deeply • Does not listen
carefully to Juliet • Loves her daughter • Has a temper (e.g., when Romeo kills Tybalt, she wants
him to be executed)
Montague Romeos father • Worries about his son’s melancholy • Compassionate, feeling man • Bitter enemy
of the Capulets • Experiences the double loss of his wife and his son • Offers to honor Juliet’s
memory with a statue
Lady Montague Romeo’s mother • Hates the violence that ensues between the families Dies from grief over
Romeo’s banishment
Nurse Juliet’s nurse • Outspoken and long-winded • Speaks in colorful language • Loves Juliet
• Fears Capulet (e.g., she advises Juliet to take her father’s advice and marry Paris) • Dependable
(e.g., she carries out favors and delivers messages for Juliet) • Earthy, natural, and unpretentious
• She enjoys reminiscing about Juliet’s childhood • Large woman
Friar Lawrence A man of God • Concerned with good and evil • Wants to unite the two families • Knowledgeable
about herbs, plants, natural remedies, and poisons • Benevolent and mature • Acts as a father
figure to Romeo and Juliet • Counsels and gives advice
Escalus Prince of Verona • Symbol of law and order • Peace-keeper • Intervenes in the civil dispute
between the Capulets and the Montagues
Friar John Messenger of Friar Lawrence • A Franciscan • Unable to deliver the message to Romeo
As a consequence, Romeo believes that Juliet is dead
Apothecary A poor shopkeeper • Morals are swayed because of his poverty • He sells illegal poison to Romeo
Balthasar Servant to Romeo • Helps Romeo enter the Capulet burial vault
Peter Servant to Juliet’s Nurse
Samson and Servants to Capulets • Bawdy in language • Quick to fight
Gregory
Abram Servant to Montagues • Fights in Act I, Scene 1
• A foil is a character who can be compared and contrasted to another character
• Used to clarify character traits and issues in the play
Romeo and Trusting relationship • Romeo’s rash impetuousness contrasts with the Friar’s maturity and wisdom
Friar Lawrence • Romeo wants Juliet; Friar wants to bring the families together • Romeo’s temper and the Friar’s
sense of forgiveness are contrasted when the messenger is detained • Men of action
Nurse and Ruled by Capulet • Female role models for Juliet • Nurse is earthy; Lady Capulet is artificial
Lady Capulet • Nurse is a confidante; Lady Capulet does not have a close relationship with Juliet
Mercutio and Violent men from different sides of the feud • Tybalt jumps to the sword quickly; Mercutio is right
Tybalt behind him • Volatile tempers • Their deaths are catalysts for the pattern of revenge and tragedy to
continue
Structure
MAIN PLOT
PARALLEL PLOTS
Background
TIME
SETTING
Just the Facts
WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE
ROMEO & JULIET
TRAGEDY
Characters
Name Description
CHARACTER SKETCHES
FOILS
Characters Relationship
Themes
LOVE
TIME
YOUTH VS. AGE
FATE
LIGHT VS. DARK
CIVIL DISORDER
LANGUAGE
ISOLATION
TM
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Description
TM permacharts Romeo Juliet StructureBackgroundJust the Facts AIN PLOTIMEILLIAM SHAKESPEARE MTW Act I Introduction Warring feud between Capulets and Montagues Born 1564; died 1616 Play occurs over a period of 5 days in midJuly; Sunday to Thursday Romeo and Juliet meet and fall in love Paris wants to marry Playwright, actor, and poet; credited with writing 37 plays and 152 sonnets Day 1Act I, Scenes 15; Act II, Scenes 12 uliet J Plays are divided into the early plays(e.g., The Taming of the Shrew), the Day 2Act II, Scenes 36; Act III, Scenes 14 ct IIDevelopmentrising action Tybalt challenges Romeo Romeo and A comedies(e.g., Much Ado About Nothing), the histories (e.g., Henry V), Day 3Act III, Scene 5; Act IV, Scenes 13 Juliet secretly marry at Friar Lawrences cell he tragedies (e.g.,Romeo Juliet), the problem plays (e.g., Measure t Day 4Act IV, Scenes 45 Act IIIClimax Death of Mercutio Romeo slays Tybalt Pattern of death for Measure), and the romance plays(e.g., The Winters Tale) Day 5Act V and revenge begins Romeo is banished from Verona ROMEO JULIET Act IVDenouementfalling action Capulet hastens the marriage date SETTING Written around 1595 (one of the most famous love stories in the world) Juliet takes sleeping potion She is found dead yet buried alive Several scenes take place in public squares in Verona Analogous to Hero and Leander; Pyramus and Thisbe; Tristan and Criseyde ct VConclusion Romeo hears of Juliets death Messenger is delayed A Much of the play takes place in the Capulet house and in the Capulet Based on Arthur Brookes The Tragicall Historye of Romeus and Juliet(1562) Death of Romeo, Juliet, Paris, and Lady Montague ourtyard c TRAGEDY PARALLEL PLOTS Other locations include the Friars cell, gardens, and the Capulet burial vault Tragedy of fate; no tragic flaw and no moral weakness in the lovers Civil feud between the Capulet household and the Montague household Some time is spent in Mantua Forces of hatred between the houses fuel the tragedy Suspicion of plague in Verona delays the messenger CharactersThemes CHARACTER SKETCHESLOVE Bodily (physical) love (e.g., it is joked about by Romeos friends) NameDescription Infatuation; flowery, Petrarchan lovesickness (e.g., Romeo and Rosaline) RomeoYoung, noble son of Montague household Undergoes growth in maturity over course of the play Infatuated with Rosaline; spins lovesick poetry Falls in love with Juliet Displays high emotions Romantic (courtly) love; object of desire (the woman) had to be unobtainable (e.g., married, dead) and both lovers had to (melancholy, true love, hysteria) Gentle and responsible (e.g., he turns down Tybalts first challenge e chaste (e.g., initially, Romeos love for Rosaline; Romeo and Juliet, although they slept together, were prevented from b to fight) Slays Tybalt to avenge Mercutio Isolates himself from friends and family for Juliet being together by various obstacles, such as their families, Juliets forced marriage, and their eventual deaths) Hasteful and impetuous Banished from Verona Finds true friend in Friar Lawrence Bravely Conventional love (e.g., Juliet is expected to participate in an arranged marriage with Paris, according to conventions) enters Verona to find Juliet Kills himself with poison when he finds Juliet dead (actually asleep) True love (e.g., Romeo and Juliet love each other emotionally, spiritually, and sexually; they are committed to each other in JulietYoung, noble daughter of Capulet household 13 years old Matures over the course of the play marriage; they are willing to die rather than be unfaithful) Falls in love with Romeo and secretly marries him Finds an ally in the Nurse Later breaks her False love (e.g., Romeo thought that he loved Rosaline, so he created artificial feelings, even though he did not know her; ond with the Nurse Submits to her parents will Later defies her fathers wishes to marry Paris b he Nurse, and Mercutio, falsely believe that love and sex are the same thing) t Strongwilled, intelligent, and independent Isolates herself from her family Bravely takes the sleeping potion Commits suicide when she finds Romeo dead Parental love (e.g., the Montagues and Capulets love for their respective children and wanting what is best for them) MercutioBest friend of Romeo Constant and true Witty; uses intelligent wordplay and puns Shows Filial love (e.g., Romeo and Mercutio are very good friends who would do almost anything for each other) oncern over Romeo when he dwells in melancholy Courageous in battle c Love vs. hate (e.g., Romeo and Juliets love vs. the hatred between the Montagues and the Capulets; dueling deaths of ybaltCousin of the Capulets Fiery temper Deep hatred of the Montagues Swears revenge on T Mercutio, Tybalt, and Paris; suicide of Romeo and Juliet is overshadowed by their love for each other) Romeo for coming to the Capulets ball Provocative; initiator of violence Speaks to Romeo with IME T disdain Quick to jump to the sword; fierce fencer Slays Mercutio Killed by Romeo The play takes place over a period of five days (Sunday to Thursday) ParisKinsman of Prince Escalus Desires to marry Juliet Does not concern himself with reciprocal love The courtship is rushed Young gallant Wellborn and wealthy Romeos rival in love Speaks in flowery phrases of praise Quick to judge Romeo in the tomb Slain by Romeo Capulet makes haste in pushing up the wedding m BenvolioFriend to Romeo Peaceful Teases his friend about desiring Rosaline Tries to stop the fightin
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