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Reference Guide

English as a Second Language - Reference Guides

4 pages219 viewsFall 2015

Department
Computer Science
Course Code
CSC495H1
Professor
all
Chapter
Permachart

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• All sentences must begin with a capital letter
• Each sentence must end with a period (.), exclamation point (!), or
question mark (?)
• Each sentence must stand alone as a complete thought
• Each sentence should contain a subject (that is, noun, pronoun, or
noun phrase) that usually precedes verb
• It should contain a verb, which is a word or group of words that
refers to an action or state of being
EXAMPLES
Rico is washing his car. (Rico, subject; is washing, verb phrase; his car,
direct object modifying the verb phrase is washing)
Is English your favorite subject? (Is, verb; English, subject; your favorite
subject, direct object modifying the subject English)
Whitney, be quiet! (Whitney, subject; be quiet, verb phrase)
TYPES OF SENTENCES
SIMPLE SENTENCE
• A simple sentence has one independent clause, which contains a
subject and verb
Example: The cat slept. (The cat, subject; slept, verb)
COMPOUND SENTENCE
• A compound sentence has two or more independent clauses,
connected by a coordinating conjunction (and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet)
and a comma (,) or semicolon (;)
Example: It’s a good plan; the boss will like it.
COMPLEX SENTENCE
• A complex sentence has one independent clause and at least one
dependent clause
• An independent clause can stand alone as a simple sentence
• A dependent clause may contain a subject, verb, objects, or
complements; a complement is a word or group of words that
provides more information about subject or object
• A dependent clause cannot stand alone as a sentence; it functions
within sentences as nouns, adjectives or adverbs
Example: If you like tennis (dependent clause [adverb]), then you’ll love
squash (independent clause)
BASIC SENTENCE REQUIREMENTS
WORD ORDER
• The natural word order is
subject-verb-object
Note: Keep subject and verb
together
INVERTED WORD ORDER
INTENTION
• A declarative sentence conveys a fact or offers information
• Always ends with a period
Examples: The equator is an imaginary line around the center
of the globe. • The bus station is two blocks south of here and
on the left.
• An interrogative sentence asks a question and usually has
an auxiliary verb before the subject
• Always ends with a question mark
Examples: Can you skate? • Where is your office?
• An imperative sentence gives commands
• Always ends with an exclamation poinin many cases,
subject is “you”
Examples: Stop! • Keep out!
• An exclamatory sentence reveals
emotion
• Usually ends with an exclamation
point
Examples: It is so hot! • The house is
on fire!
DECLARATIVE
INTERROGATIVE
IMPERATIVE
EXCLAMATORY
Subject Verb Object
She punched him
Shane jumps hurdles
Verb Subject Object
Is English your
favorite
subject?
Are all gymnasts acrobatic?
• Inverted sentences put the
verb before the subject
• Most questions are inverted
English as a Second Language
English as a Second Language
© 2003-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc.
ESL • 1-55080-777-31
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permacharts
2nd EDITION
www.permacharts.com
• A verb must agree with its subject in person
SUBJECTS
• Determine if the subject is singular or plural; plural
subjects must have plural verbs
• If the subject ends with an s, then the verb is usually plural
(for example, Ten boxes of cookies are in the pantry. [Ten
boxes, plural subject; are, plural verb])
• Singular subjects, excluding pronouns Iand you, should
have singular verbs (for example, Eduardo writes with his
left hand. [Eduardo, singular subject; writes, singular verb])
• If subject is an indefinite pronoun (that is, does not refer
to a specific person or thing, such as one, nobody,
nothing, someone, everybody), use a singular verb (for
example, Everybody shows up early for work. [Everybody,
singular subject; shows, singular verb])
• Compound subjects joined by and usually have a plural
verb (for example, Joe and Ray are twins. [Joe and Ray,
plural subject; are, plural verb])
• If 2 or more subjects are connected by or/nor, verb is
usually singular (for example, Either Barbara or Cathy is
going to win the race. [Barbara or Cathy, singular subject; is
going, singular verb])
Exception: When both subjects are plural or when the
subject nearest verb is plural, a plural verb is needed (for
example, Neither the girls nor the boys are very fast swimmers.
[the girls nor the boys, plural subject; are, plural verb])
VERBS
• Match the verb with the subject (for example, The fare
increase for first class passengers was nominal. [fare increase,
singular subject; was, singular verb])
• Match verb tenses with the subject (see Verb Tenses)
SUBJECT/VERB AGREEMENT
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