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Reference Guide

English as a Second Language - Reference Guides

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Computer Science
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TM permacharts English as a Second Language English as a Second Language 2nd EDITION BASIC SENTENCE REQUIREMENTSSUBJECTVERB AGREEMENT All sentences must begin with a capital letter A verb must agree with its subject in person Each sentence must end with a period(.), exclamation point(!), or UBJECTS S question mark(?) Each sentence must stand alone as a complete thought Determine if the subject is singular or plural; plural Each sentence should contain a subject(that is, noun, pronoun, orsubjects must have plural verbs noun phrase) that usually precedes verb If the subject ends with an s, then the verb is usually plural It should contain a verb, which is a word or group of words that(for example, Ten boxes of cookies are in the pantry.[Ten refers to an action or state of beingboxes, plural subject; are, plural verb]) Singular subjects, excluding pronouns Iand you, should EXAMPLES have singular verbs (for example, Eduardo writes with his left hand. [Eduardo, singular subject; writes, singular verb]) Rico is washing his car.(Rico, subject; is washing, verb phrase; his car, If subject is an indefinite pronoun (that is, does not refer direct object modifying the verb phrase is washing) to a specific person or thing, such as one, nobody, Is English your favorite subject?(Is, verb; English, subject; your favorite nothing, someone, everybody), use a singular verb (for subject, direct object modifying the subject English) example, Everybody shows up early for work.[Everybody, Whitney, be quiet!(Whitney, subject; be quiet, verbphrase) singular subject; shows, singular verb]) Compound subjects joined by andusually have a plural verb (for example, Joe and Ray are twins.[Joe and Ray, plural subject; are, plural verb]) If 2 or more subjects are connected by ornor, verb is usually singular (for example, Either Barbara or Cathy is TYPES OF SENTENCES going to win the race. [Barbara or Cathy, singular subject; is SIMPLE SENTENCE going, singular verb]) Exception: When both subjects are plural or when the A simple sentencehas one independent clause, which contains a subject nearest verb is plural, a plural verb is needed (for subject and verb example, Neither the girls nor the boys are very fast swimmers. Example: The cat slept.(The cat, subject; slept, verb) [the girls nor the boys, plural subject; are, plural verb]) COMPOUND SENTENCE VERBS A compound sentence has two or more independent clauses, Match the verb with the subject (for example, The fare connected by a coordinating conjunction (and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet) increase for first class passengers was nominal. [fare increase, and a comma (,) or semicolon (;) singular subject; was, singular verb]) Example: Its a good plan; the boss will like it. Match verb tenses with the subject (see Verb Tenses) COMPLEX SENTENCE A complex sentencehas one independent clause and at least one INTENTION dependent clause An independent clausecan stand alone as a simple sentence DECLARATIVE A dependent clausemay contain a subject, verb, objects, or complements; a complementis a word or group of words that A declarativesentence conveys a fact or offers information provides more information about subject or object Always ends with a period A dependent clausecannot stand alone as a sentence; it functions Examples: The equator is an imaginary line around the center within sentences as nouns, adjectives or adverbs of the globe. The bus station is two blocks south of here and Example: If you like tennis (dependent clause [adverb]), then youll loveon the left. squash (independent clause) INTERROGATIVE An interrogativesentence asks a question and usually has an auxiliary verb before the subject Always ends with a question mark Examples: Can you skate? Where is your office? WORD ORDER IMPERATIVE The natural word order is SubjectVerbObject subjectverbobject An imperativesentence gives commands She punched him Always ends with an exclamation poinin many cases, Note: Keep subject and verb Shane jumpshurdles subject is you together Examples: Stop! Keep out! INVERTED WORD ORDER EXCLAMATORY Inverted sentences put the VerbSubjectObject An exclamatorysentencereveals verb before the subject emotion IsEnglishyour Most questions are inverted favorite Usually ends with an exclamation subject? point Areall gymnastsacrobatic? Examples: It is so hot! The house is on fire! 20032012 Mindsource Technologies Inc. 1 ESL 1550807773
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