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Reference Guide

French Grammar - Reference Guides

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Fall 2015
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Department
Computer Science
Course Code
CSC495H1
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all
Chapter
Permachart

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NOUNS
Nouns are words that name people, places or things (.can
include objects, ideas, feelings or qualities); other words (for
example adjectives, verbs) can also be used as nouns
• Nouns are sometimes preceded by articles; an article is placed
before a noun to see if it can be preceded by the article
French Grammar
French Grammar
TYPES OF NOUNS
Common nouns designate whole classes of people or things
(for example une maison [a house], la fleur [the flower], un écrivain
[a writer])
Proper nouns refer to specific persons, places, or things
(for example La France [France], Les Français [the French people],
Monsieur Baudelaire [Mr. Baudelaire])
• Proper nouns are always capitalized; they may be used as
common nouns (for example du champagne [champagne], le judas
[the Judas])
• Some common nouns may be used as proper nouns
(for example La Gloire [Glory], La Fortune [Fortune])
Simple nouns consist of one word; composed nouns consist of
more than one word (for example une pomme de terre [a potato])
ADJECTIVES
• Words that modify or qualify nouns; they take the number and
gender of the noun which they modify
Possessive
• Determine noun while adding grammatical idea of possession
• Agree in number and gender with the word they describe,
and in person with the person who possesses
Relative
• Relate a clause to the
antecedent they
introduce; mainly
used in administrative
or legal language
and literary texts
Indefinite
Join the noun to add a vague idea about quality, resemblance or
difference
NON-QUALIFICATIVE (DETERMINATIVE) ADJECTIVES
• Do not express a quality
• Accompany the noun and add a certain determination
(for example: un homme [a man], le chien [the dog])
GENDER & NUMBER
• Each noun has a grammatical gender (masculine or feminine);
true for all nouns, even those that refer to objects and concepts
• The ending of a noun (suffix) is sometimes a clue to its gender
• Each noun has a grammatical number (singular or plural)
• One way to form a plural is to add -s (not usually pronounced)
MASCULINE & FEMININE ENDINGS
• In general, feminine
form adds a mute
eto the masculine
• Some words change
form (for example
un coq [rooster],
une poule [chicken])
• Others use the
same form (for
example un élève;
une élève [student])
• Some words have
neither feminine
nor plural forms
(un agent [agent
{no feminine}])
FORMING THE PLURAL
• Most plurals are formed by adding -s (un homme; des hommes
[man; men])
• Some cases have 2 different plural forms, depending on meaning
(le ciel [the sky], les cieux [skies, heaven], les ciels [sky, climate])
• Some nouns are used either only in the singular or plural (le fer
[iron], l’air [air],
les environs
[the surroundings])
• Some nouns change
meaning from
singular to plural
(le sort de l’humanité
[the fate of humanity],
les humanités
classiques [classical
humanities])
Masculine Feminine
- (ami) e(amie)
er, ier (berger) ère (bergère)
en, on (chien) ne (chienne)
an, ain, in (faisan) e(faisane)
el, eau (colonel) le (colonelle)
c(Franc) que [-c] (Franque)
f(veuf) ve [-f] (veuve)
t(candidat) e(candidate)
et (cadet) te (cadette)
x(vaniteux) se [-x] (vaniteuse)
en, eur, teur (crieur) se [-r] (crieuse)
Singular Plural
s, x, z (une croix) - (des croix)
au, eu (un bateau) x(des bateaux)
al (un cheval) aux [-al] (des
chevaux)
ou (un sou) s(des sous)
ai, ail (un chandail) s(des chandails)
Sole Possessor Many Possessors
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Masc.Fem. Both Both Both
1st person mon ma mes notre nos
2nd person ton ta tes votre vos
3rd person son sa ses leur leurs
Masc/Fem (s) Masc/Fem (pl)
lequel/laquelle lesquels/lesquelles
duquel/de laquelle desquels/desquelles
auquel/à laquelle auxquels/auxquelles
aucun any
autre other
certain certain
chaque each
maint many
même same
nul none
plusieurs several
que what
quelque some
tout all
Interrogative
• Pose a question about identity, rank, or quality of the person or
thing designated by the noun
• Include quel, quelle, quels, and quelles
Demonstrative
• Specify the noun
that will be
(or has been)
talked about
• Include ce, cet,
cette, and ces
Numeral
• Indicate number, order, or rank of
things being talked about
• Two types are cardinal (for example,
un garçon [one boy]) and ordinal (for
example, le premier garçon [the first
boy]) numeral adjectives)
• Words that accompany nouns; give information about noun’s
gender and number (noun is defined or undefined)
Definite Same as the; indicates a specific object or name
Indefinite Same as a, an; indicates a non-specific object or name
Partitive Same as some;
indicates an
amount of
something
l’ and de l’ are
used if following
word begins with
a vowel
Singular Plural
Masc.Fem.Both
Definite le la les
Indefinite un une des
Partitive du de la
1FRENCH GRAMMAR 1-55080-821-4 © 1999-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc.
TM
permacharts
2nd EDITION
www.permacharts.com
ARTICLES

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Description
TM permacharts French Grammar French Grammar 2nd EDITION NOUNSARTICLES Nounsare words that name people, places or things (.can Words that accompany nouns; give information about nouns include objects, ideas, feelings or qualities); other words (forgender and number (noun is defined or undefined) example adjectives, verbs) can also be used as nouns DefiniteSame as the; indicates a specific object or name Nouns are sometimes preceded by articles; an article is placed IndefiniteSame as a,an; indicates a nonspecific object or name before a noun to see if it can be preceded by the article PartitiveSame as some; SingularPlural YPES OF NOUNS T indicates an Masc.Fem.Both amount of Common nounsdesignate whole classes of people or things something Definitele lales (for example une maison[a house], la fleur[the flower], un crivain land de lare [a writer]) Indefiniteununedes used if following Proper nounsrefer to specific persons, places, or things Partitivedude la word begins with (for example La France[France], Les Franais[the French people], a vowel Monsieur Baudelaire[Mr. Baudelaire]) Proper nouns are always capitalized; they may be used as common nouns (for example du champagne[champagne], le judas [the Judas]) ADJECTIVES Some common nouns may be used as proper nouns Words that modify or qualify nouns; they take the number and (for example La Gloire[Glory], La Fortune[Fortune]) gender of the noun which they modify Simple nounsconsist of one word; composednounsconsist of more than one word (for example unepomme de terre[a potato]) NONQUALIFICATIVE (DETERMINATIVE) ADJECTIVES Do not express a quality GENDER NUMBER Accompany the noun and add a certain determination Each noun has a grammatical gender(masculine or feminine); (for example: un homme[a man], le chien[the dog]) true for all nouns, even those that refer to objects and concepts Possessive The ending of a noun (suffix) is sometimes a clue to its gender Determine noun while adding grammatical idea of possession Each noun has a grammatical number(singular or plural) Agree in number and gender with the word they describe, One way to form a plural is to add s(not usually pronounced) and in person with the person who possesses MASCULINE FEMININE ENDINGS Sole PossessorMany Possessors SingularPluralSingularPlural In general, feminine MasculineFeminine Masc.Fem.BothBothBoth form adds a mute (ami)e(amie) eto the masculine 1st personmon mamesnotrenos er, ier(berger)re(bergre) Some words change 2nd personton tatesvotrevos form (for example en, on(chien)ne(chienne) un coq[rooster], 3rd personson sasesleurleurs an, ain, in(faisan)e(faisane) une poule [chicken]) DemonstrativeNumeral Others use the el, eau(colonel)le(colonelle) same form (for Specify the noun Indicate number, order, or rank of c(Franc)que[c](Franque) example un lve;that will be things being talked about f(veuf)ve[f](veuve) une lve[student])(or has been) Two types are cardinal(for example, talked about Some words have ungaron[oneboy]) and ordinal(for t(candidat)e(candidate) neither feminine Include ce, cet,example, le premiergaron[the first et(cadet)te(cadette) nor plural forms cette, and cesboy]) numeral adjectives) (un agent[agent x(vaniteux)se[x](vaniteuse) Relative MascFem (s)MascFem (pl) {no feminine}]) en, eur, teur(crieur)se[r](crieuse) Relate a clause to the lequellaquellelesquelslesquelles antecedent they duquelde laquelledesquelsdesquelles introduce; mainly FORMING THE PLURAL used in administrative auquel laquelleauxquelsauxquelles Most plurals are formed by adding s(un homme; des hommes or legal language [man; men]) and literary texts Some cases have 2 different plural forms, depending on meaning Indefinite (le ciel[the sky], les cieux[skies, heaven], les ciels[sky, climate]) Join the noun to add a vague idea about quality, resemblance or Some nouns are used either only in the singular or plural (le fer difference [iron], lair[air], SingularPluralaucunanymaintmanyquewhat les environs [the surroundings]) s, x,z(une croix) (des croix)autreothermmesamequelquesome Some nouns change au, eu(un bateau)x(des bateaux)certaincertainnulnonetoutall meaning from al(un cheval)aux[al](deschaqueeachplusieursseveral singular to plural chevaux) (le sort de lhumanit Interrogative [the fate of humanity], ou(un sou)s(des sous) les humanits Pose a question about identity, rank, or quality of the person or ai, ail(un chandail)s(des chandails) classiques[classical thing designated by the noun humanities]) Include quel, quelle, quels, and quelles 19992012 Mindsource Technologies Inc. 1 FRENCH GRAMMAR1550808214 www.permacharts.com
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