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Reference Guide

French Linguistics - Reference Guides

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Department
Computer Science
Course Code
CSC495H1
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OVERVIEW
Linguistics is the general or comparative
science (or study) of a language; linguists
observe, rather than prescribe, the way a
language works
• A common attitude towards a language is that
it is immutable (that is, there is a “proper” way
of speaking); however, linguistics has repeatedly
demonstrated that this is not true, and that
languages change over the course of time
• French began as a local dialect (patois) based
on vulgar (street-level) Latin imported to Gaul
by the Romans; it emerged and evolved from a
particular patois that succeeded over others
• The French linguistic system is made up of 6
levels of language: sentences (phrases), clauses
(propositions), words (mots [about 50,000]),
syllables (syllabes [a few hundred]), phonemes
(phonèmes [36]), and small units of sound
(traits [7 major units])
TWO KINDS OF GRAMMAR
Normative grammar (la grammaire normative)
explains how the language works as a system,
so as to teach the usage (sometimes referred to
as proper usage [bon usage]) of the language
• Normative grammar includes all the grammar
rules (parts of speech, verb conjugation, and so
on)
Reasoned grammar (la grammaire raisonée)
explains structure and functioning of the
language from historical, psychological, and
linguistic viewpoints
THE GOAL OF COMMUNICATION
• Communication transfers information from a
speaker to a listener (and vice-versa)
• This process consists of production (la production;
encodage), transmission (la transmission), and
reception (la réception; décodage)
• The information being transferred is referred to
as signal (signal); the language being used is
referred to as code (code)
• The code consists of communicative units
(unités) and rules (règles)
LINGUISTIC COMPONENTS & FUNCTIONS
• R. Jakobson (1963) proposed these linguistic
components and functions
Component Function
contexte context referentielle referential
destinateur addresser emotive emotive
message message poetique poetic
destinataire addressee conative effective
contact contact phatique phatic
code code metaling- metaling-
uistique uistic
• The context component is made up of both
extralinguistic factors (for example, entities,
concepts of the external world) and linguistic
content
• The addresser component is the person
initiating the production of the message
• The message component is the particular form
taken by the information; the same message
can be expressed in different ways/tones of
voice (for example, sarcasm)
• The addressee component is the person
receiving the code
• The contact component is the physical
connection between communicators
• The code component consists of the rules and
linguistic units used in such a way as to ensure
understanding
• The referential function provides the
information transferred by the message in a
linguistic or extralinguistic context
• The emotive function is based on the person
initiating the production (for example, a person
may speak in different tones for different
moods, such as fear)
• The poetic function is based on the message
and all the different forms it can take; a speaker
has varying degrees of choice
• The effective function is based on the person
receiving the message, and the means utilized
to convince (or elicit a response from) this person
• The phatic function verifies whether contact is
maintained during communication
• The metalinguistic function is based on the
code itself (for example, repeating someone’s
instructions, directions or words to ensure
understanding)
Phonetics (la phonétique) is
the study of the sounds of
the language in their
concrete (physical) realities,
independent of linguistic
function
• Phonetics allow us to
describe how sounds are
produced and perceived;
it studies the physical,
physiological or articulatory
aspects of language
Articulation (la phonétique
articulatoire) describes the
human phonetical
production system from a
biological standpoint (for
example, how we make
sounds)
Acoustics (la phonétique
acoustique) studies the
propagation of sound and
its physical characteristics,
the sound of speech, and
so on
Auditory phonetics
(La phonétique auditive)
describes the human
hearing apparatus and the
decoding of the sounds of
speech
• The human phonetical
production system consists
of 2 sub-systems
• The vocal system
(le système phonatoire)
allows us to vocalize/
produce a basic sound
(the voice) and the
articulate system
(le système articulatoire)
allows us to modify that
basic sound so as to
produce a variety of
different sounds
Phonology (la phonologie)
is the branch of phonetics
concerned with the sounds
of a language and their
function within the
language (for example, the
minimal sounds that allow
us to distinguish between
words and syllables)
• Phonology analyzes the
distinctive or differentiative
function of language
• The smallest units of sound
are called phonemes
(phonèmes); they have no
semantic meaning on their
own
• Phonemes consist of 16
vowels, 17 consonants (plus
one for borrowed words),
and 3 semi-consonants
INTRODUCTION
TO PHONETICS
ORAL VS. WRITTEN FRENCH
Oral (spoken) French is a series of sonorous
signals that are understood as a means of
communication; written French is a series of
visual signals that are understood as a means of
communication
• Oral language is much older and more widely
used than written language; the oral code
(language) changes more or less rapidly
(depending on social and economic factors), but
it is always evolving
• The written code (language) usually slows
down the process of change of the oral
language; it serves as a norm, and includes all
the grammar rules (parts of speech, verb
conjugation, and so on)
• The degrees of oral language include literary,
current, familiar, and vulgar; the degrees of
written language include artistic, literary, and
familiar
LINGUISTIC DIVISIONS
• Since language is composed of sounds, words,
and constructions, reasoned grammar consists
of several parts
Phonetics (la phonétique) is the study of the
sounds of the language
Syntax (la syntaxe) is the study of constructions
(that is, the way words are put together to form
a sentence) (verb/subject agreement, functions,
and so on)
Lexicology (la lexicologie) is the study of words
Example: Traffic lights, gestures, and picture
signs are visual signals of communication
French Linguistics
French Linguistics
FRENCH LINGUISTICS • 1-55080-822-21© 1997-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc.
TM
permacharts
2nd EDITION
www.permacharts.com

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Description
TM permacharts French Linguistics French Linguistics 2nd EDITION OVERVIEWINTRODUCTION TO PHONETICS Linguisticsis the general or comparative HE GOAL OF COMMUNICATION T science (or study) of a language; linguists Phonetics(la phontique) is Communication transfers information from a observe, rather than prescribe, the way a the study of the sounds of speaker to a listener (and viceversa) language works the language in their This process consists of production(la production; A common attitude towards a language is that concrete (physical) realities, encodage), transmission(la transmission), and it is immutable (that is, there is a proper way independent of linguistic reception(la rception; dcodage) of speaking); however, linguistics has repeatedly function The information being transferred is referred to demonstrated that this is not true, and that Phonetics allow us to as signal(signal); the language being used is languages change over the course of time describe how sounds are referred to as code(code) French began as a local dialect(patois) based produced and perceived; on vulgar (streetlevel) Latin imported to Gaul it studies the physical, Example: Traffic lights, gestures, and picture by the Romans; it emerged and evolved from a physiological or articulatory signs are visual signals of communication particular patois that succeeded over others aspects of language The French linguistic system is made up of 6 Articulation(la phontique The code consists of communicative units levels of language: sentences(phrases), clauses (units) and rules(rgles) articulatoire) describes the (propositions), words(mots[about 50,000]), human phonetical syllables(syllabes[a few hundred]), phonemes production system from a LINGUISTIC COMPONENTS FUNCTIONS (phonmes[36]), and small units of sound biological standpoint (for R. Jakobson (1963) proposed these linguistic (traits[7 major units]) example, how we make components and functions sounds) ORAL VS. WRITTEN FRENCH Acoustics(la phontique ComponentFunction acoustique) studies the contextecontextreferentiellereferential Oral(spoken) French is a series of sonorous propagation of sound and signals that are understood as a means of destinateuraddresseremotiveemotive its physical characteristics, communication; writtenFrench is a series of messagemessagepoetiquepoetic the sound of speech, and visual signals that are understood as a means of so on destinataireaddresseeconativeeffective communication Auditory phonetics contactcontactphatiquephatic Oral language is much older and more widely (La phontique auditive) codecodemetalingmetaling used than written language; the oral code describes the human uistiqueuistic (language) changes more or less rapidly hearing apparatus and the (depending on social and economic factors), but The context componentis made up of both decoding of the sounds of it is always evolving extralinguistic factors (for example, entities, speech The written code(language) usually slows concepts of the external world) and linguistic The human phonetical down the process of change of the oral content production system consists language; it serves as a norm, and includes all The addresser componentis the person of 2 subsystems the grammar rules (parts of speech, verb initiating the production of the message The vocal system conjugation, and so on) The message componentis the particular form (le systme phonatoire) The degrees of oral language include literary, taken by the information; the same message allows us to vocalize current, familiar, and vulgar; the degrees of can be expressed in different waystones of produce a basic sound written language include artistic, literary, and voice (for example, sarcasm) (the voice) and the familiar The addressee componentis the person articulate system receiving the code (le systme articulatoire) TWO KINDS OF GRAMMAR allows us to modify that The contact componentis the physical basic sound so as to Normative grammar(la grammaire normative) connection between communicators produce a variety of explains how the language works as a system, The code componentconsists of the rules and different sounds so as to teach the usage (sometimes referred to linguistic units used in such a way as to ensure as proper usage [bon usage]) of the language Phonology(la phonologie) understanding is the branch of phonetics Normative grammar includes all the grammar The referential functionprovides the concerned with the sounds rules (parts of speech, verb conjugation, and so information transferred by the message in a of a language and their on) linguistic or extralinguistic context function within the Reasoned grammar(la grammaire raisone) The emotive functionis based on the person language (for example, the explains structure and functioning of the initiating the production (for example, a person minimal sounds that allow language from historical, psychological, and may speak in different tones for different us to distinguish between linguistic viewpoints moods, such as fear) words and syllables) The poetic functionis based on the message Phonology analyzes the LINGUISTIC DIVISIONS and all the different forms it can take; a speaker distinctive or differentiative has varying degrees of choice Since language is composed of sounds, words, function of language The effective functionis based on the person and constructions, reasoned grammar consists The smallest units of sound receiving the message, and the means utilized of several parts are called phonemes to convince (or elicit a response from) this person Phonetics(la phontique) is the study of the (phonmes); they have no The phatic functionverifies whether contact is sounds of the language semantic meaning on their maintained during communication own Syntax(la syntaxe) is the study of constructions The metalinguistic functionis based on the (that is, the way words are put together to form Phonemes consist of 16 code itself (for example, repeating someones a sentence) (verbsubject agreement, functions, vowels, 17 consonants (plus instructions,directions or words to ensure and so on) one for borrowed words), understanding) and 3 semiconsonants Lexicology(la lexicologie) is the study of words 19972012 Mindsource Technologies Inc. FRENCH LINGUISTICS 15508082221 www.permacharts.com
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