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University of Toronto St. George
Diaspora and Transnational Studies
Kevin Lewis O' Neill

DTS200 Lecture #10 March 19, 2013 Toronto - Many cities focus on the elites of a town therefore you get a lot of political history but also you can find out about a city through its urban process especially through its road system. - But also the changing demography of a city is important - 3 general principles o The relationship between spaces- specially means any space mentions should be connected to anything else you know about space.  A spatial consciousness o Another thing is about special morphology- the way things are arranged - Settlement history o The original settlement was a small settlement between Front Berkley Street, George st, and duck st. It didn’t even go up to queen o It was a small settlement on the lakeshore o By 1794/96 the population was 241 people  Made of the loyalist settlers, who came to find land. o Toronto of today is flat from the lakeshore until you get to about St. Clair Avenue. And from St Clair it becomes to climb up. Now this flat and climb- topography of the city- gives it certain features which are advantage and disadvantages.  Disadvantage was laying road  Advantage was the three major rivers but 2 are the most important  Humber River  Don River  The rivers were the water ways o The ways in which the 2 rivers, Humber and Don, the sites of the old mills are now major shopping districts. This is important to think about  You can make an analysis how these large shopping districts met  This happened in the early 1960s  Therefore the rivers are very important for trade in the settlement period - Brief history o Key protagonists of pre-settlement history: The Huron-Wendat, the Iroquois, the Seneca’s, the Mississauga’s, French fur traders o The name Toronto comes from the Iroquois word tkaronto, which means the place where trees stand in the water. The Huron, earlier occupants of the land and displaced in wars with the Iroquois, used to plant tree saplings at in the water to catch fish o By 1665, a native settlement called Teiaiagon or Teyeyagon, was noted on French maps at tkaronto, on the east side of the mouth of the Humber River, close to today’s Old Mill. The settlement was also known by Europeans as the Toronto Carrying Place, and was a significant hub for French fur traders to undertake their journeys to the Heorgian Bay and the Great Lakes, even as far as Mississippi. The settlement was also the base for the Seneca’s and subsequently for the Mississauga’s who by the 1720s had displaced them in war. The settlement also attracted Christian missionaries, including the Jesuits and the sulpicians. The Toronto carrying place trail was a major portage rout in Ontario, linking lake Ontario with the northern great lakes regions o Of slightly less importance was another village called Ganatsekwyagon or Ganatchakiagon by the Seneca’s, which lay on the bank of the Rouge River on the today’s boundary between Toronto and Pickering o Between the Humber and the Rouge lay the Don, which was once a magnificent river navigable by canoe for at least 5 miles and famous for its salmon? The period saw considerable traffic between Teiaiagon and Ganatsekwyagon, which also encouraged their attraction to early traders o The Gardiner Expressway, the 401 and the DVP formed the ancient road systems of the aboriginal peoples, and grew from being trails to the large traffic roadways that they are today o The Ontario purchase was affected in 1787 for 1700 pounds and goods for which the Mississauges of the Credit River conveyed title to a 14 mile stretch along the lakefront, from today’s Scarborough westward past Humber to Etobicoke, and inland reaching back some 28 miles. The new Loyalist settlers, led by Lieutenant General John Graves Simoce, established a settlement on the coast of Lake Ontario and called it the Town of York. The township was ransacked during the battle of York in 1812, and way renamed Toronto in 1834. For Rouille or Fort Toronto, had been erected on the site of today’s Exhibition Place by the French in 1751 o In 1791 the british province of Upper Canada was established with Toronto its capital  In the province of Ontario this fundamentally changed its status - Some street names o Principles of naming, by the early 20 century Toronto was a British Town. If you look carefully you can still see Brutishness. o Ex: Bloor St, named after Joseph Bloor (1788-1862) a brewer who lived at 100 Bloor St West Bloor and Sheriff Jarvis laid out the village plots for the township of Yorkville in the th 1830s. Bloor St was the northernmost limit of the city proper until the early 20 century o Examples:  Christie St  College St, its original use 1829 was as a private avenue of approach to Kings College, but was leased by the UofT, along with the University Ave, as public streets in 1988  Berczy St  Dundas St  Jarvis St  Wellesly St  Yonge St  Gardner Expressway th  Robarts Library, names for John Robarts, 17 Premier of Ontario from 1951- 1961. Robarts had been Minister of Education in the previous government  Philip Nathan Sq o The names of Toronto, one thing you notice, the balk of them (40%) are names after British officials ex: Queen, Kings. The second is colonial soldier’s example Simcoe,. But the other element is that a lot of streets in Toronto were named after women who were either wives or daughters of colonial officials. Also, another huge number of streets are names after huge key municipal figures. - Demographic characteristics o Population of Toronto was 500,000 in 1918 with 80% being British born o The metro, later reconstituted into the GTA, was originally formed in 1953 with 13 municipalities including York, North York, Etobicoke, East York Leaside and Scarborough o By 1966 the population in the Metro had risen to 1.6 million with the population of those from the British Isles dropping to 59% o The foreign born population in the Metro rose to 42% in 1961 o Thousands of refugees from Eastern Europe came to the metro throughout the 1940s and 50s including Ukrainians and Hungarians. These joined the many Poles who had already settled in the Metro o In the 1950s the Bathurst and Law
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