New Economy

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Diaspora and Transnational Studies
Kevin Lewis O' Neill

DTS200 Lecture #10 November 20, 2012 9-11, 2-5 Wed Nov 21, 2012 : TA office hours for the mid-term Midterm: - Definitions 10/15: one or two sentences i.e. Labour Diaspora: notes/readings. - Short answer: 4/6: four to five sentences i.e. fordism and post fordism- cultural modernity and a-cultural modernity - Essay question: 1/3: reference readings, theories and issues- i.e. each argument has a coherent argument. Could be over a series of lecture. i.e.: fordism and Yoga and self-esteem.. the first three lectures are a specific essay question - Most of the midterm exam will cover stuff after the short essay pretty much - How does modernity incorporate difference into its master narrative; transnational engagement- tourism; modernity narrative: the place of racial ambiguity’ Oprah allowing us to image the deepness of our souls, allowing us to know our calling; yoga: modification of yoga: how it turns something into what can be bought and sold New Economy - Anderson Benedict: invocation of the WE - We are the 99%: occupy movement o Occupy Toronto is no more: no more o No physical camps around the world o Claim towards collectivity- general collectivity:  We are the 99%  Class reference to those making less than 506,000 dollars in income o Interested in: with oprah we were able to talk about the ways in which popular culture puts us in relationship to the self. But the 99% is the cultural reference where the WE exists  On what grounds can be invoke a WE today? o 99% is the broad umbrella where a lot of causes exist - The WEness- in what grounds can we invoke a WE o Indexicality is a philosophical term o I-You-We  Charles Pierce  This philosopher thinks about, American philosopher, the question of indexicallity. Those moments in grammar when we invoke a I-You-We o This suggest a social relationship which draws lines within society or groups  i.e. if we are hanging out after class we get lunch and then we turn to one person and say: “what are you gunna do” this draws social boundaries- therefore they are not getting lunch o I-You-We is grammar which draws lines between people  Charles Pierce- at the base of this collectivity is the invocation of a we- you- or I o With Oprah: there was great vocab to describe the I: “I am sad”... but there is also a sense of a ‘we’ in occupy because WE are the 99%  There is an increasing difficulty in invoking a we  But when we talk about social movements and collectivises, the idea of “We Want You” this move is becoming more difficult - A shift in economy in fordism and post-fordism and what the means for contemporary politics - We are the 99% - Grounds of what this WEness began o Fordism  We don’t want to Romanise Fordism  In invoking the WE in the fordist movement was easier why?  This was not a great place during the Fordist era- who was a WE in terms of gender, race, class...  Established a collectivity which is difficult now th  A style of mass production which took place in the early 20 century which took place by the engineer Henry Ford  People who begins to think about questions of systematic efficiency  Henry Ford: 1863-1947  He changed the approach to mass production  One of the major things on Fordism: o Standard production: ideas of mass production. Making one standard product over and over again therefore there was no kind of tailoring, or what would you want. “you can have a model-T ford as long as it is Black”  Therefore fordism becomes the standard for everything o Assembly line: systematic efficiency. Doing one thing over and over again. Allow more cars to be produced a quicker cheaper price. o Unskilled labour: the whole deal is unskilled labour if you are doing one task all day that one worker will likely perfect that skill quickly with a little training. o Higher wagers: fodism doubles the minimum wage. 2:43/hour to 5$/hour. What does that do? Workings are going to be enthusiastic and committed, maybe you get more people that way, turnover is expensive- no training, retains talents- no turnovers, or re-training stability int he works, it makes your workers not just wage labours but consumers- people begin to buy.  Therefore now all the workers can buy what they are making.  Movement in fordism called welfare capitalism, over paying your workers which creates consumption- this move defines fordism  Model T- what happens to the American aspect if everyone has a model-T  The whole landscape shrinks- affects of the shrinking landscape. o Easier to get everywhere o Suburban growth. If you don’t have to live in walking distance to the factory you can begin to afford land further away. o Gas stations begin to emerge, people servicing cars, the drive throw, car insurance. o The impact on the car and the amount of times people spend in cars.  You would have company loyalty- great advertisement  We is invoked in fordism  In the rise of middle classness  Mobility- who is still riding the bus? o Who is mobile and who isn’t  All of a sudden we are creating sweat shop labour conditions - Int he united states- civil society begins to mediate between labour and state o It is not just the car that is standradized, it is your car, tv... o Standardize is more and more in reach for everyone. o The middle class movement becomes stronger o Industry labour is a dominate demographic in which union becomes to mediate between state and labour  UAW o Most of everyone who wanted a job in a factory could have gotten one. - The Fordist State o With it we have a labour policy o Public policy  Mediated by unions o Welfare state o We do not have invocations that we are the 99%, but we have invocations of industrial workers, family centered, mobile population which invoke a WE o “we can do it!”  During the world war a movement towards labour we as an industrial movement can produce - Exporting Fordism o Transnationalism o Fordlandia- book  Wrote a book about ford  Brazil- interested in making his own tires- rubber extraction would be a great final product.  Henry Ford was interested in exporting fordism in Brazil to make tires so they were cheaper.  This didn’t go as well - “we can do it!” o The fordist state allowed for an invocation of a WE- continuation of Benedict’s Andersons imagined community  As fordism increased and a new style of living emerged the WE was easier to invoke.  i.e. whether your wife stayed home - Fordism and Taylorism o Fordism marked the mass production, Taylor becomes the science of efficiency o Fredrick Taylor 1856-1917  The first on to think of management  He thinks of how workers can do their job better and faster...  The big thing with Taylor- scientific Management- the key  Treating labour relations, production of things, scientifically  Making charts and statistical averages- how many tasks can someone do in one day. What is possible he is trying to increase this  He was the first to think about what makes people motivated to work.  He said: “men work for only two reasons one is for wages and one is for fear of losing their jobs”  He developed a thing called scientific management  2 basic principles: o Increased efficiency o Decreased waste  If we are doubling their wage they should be doubling their work  This is where unions come in- what is an appropriate work for a workers in a day
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