Tourism and Transnationalism or Inverting the Tourist Gaze

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Diaspora and Transnational Studies
Kevin Lewis O' Neill

DTS200 Lecture #5 Oct 9, 2012 - T.A. Lecture- Jeannine Pitas - THIS LECTURE WILL BE ON THE MIDTERM SHORT ESSAY OR SHORT ANSWER QUESTION - Thursday 1:30-5pm- to see the TA for the short paper - Tips for the essay: o Refer to three readings; cite them using MLA or Chicago style; mention specific page numbers and include works cited at the end o Writ as if you were explaining the concepts of Diaspora and transnationalism to someone unfamiliar with them o Synthesize concepts from the class o Make the essay your own; write in your own unique voice and use original exampled if you can o Check your grammar/style; see a writing tutor if necessary o Essay should be double space and fit on one page; use as little paper as possible; no title page is required. Tourism and Transnationalism or Inverting the Tourist Gaze - The readings she gave use was old 1976 but it was a classic work on tourism - What does tourism have to do with Diaspora and Transnationalism? o You want to explore the culture of where you are going o It is a consent flow of people. Is it generally moving back and forth? There are defiantly asymmetries of power going on in travel o It could be called a temporary Diaspora because you are going to a place for a short period of time o It moves money there are some countries that are totally dependent for their survival o It has a presupposition of metrological nationalism  Ex: presupposition of seeing a certain culture in a certain place i.e. French culture in France o People in a diaspora want to go back to the homeland maybe not permanently but they visit the home land o The idea of national identity; imagined community, when you visit a new country and see a fellow citizen there from back home o Diaspora and tourism can be related because members of a diasporic community travel back to their home country  i.e. trying to find home o in terms of temporary diaspora- not sure about that TA thinks it depends on the length of the stay, but when people stay for a long period of time you can get ex-patriot diasporas. Links with transnartionalism in terms of the movement of money and the economic impact of tourism, and the asymmetries of power when some people are able to travel and some are not  not just the movement of people but ideas, markets, citizenship, technology, modes of political organizations - Modernity o What does tourism have to do with modernity in terms of what we have learned from Charles Taylor?  Seeking authenticity, tourism is a luxury and only a small amount of countries in the world has tourists vs. tourism and this demonstrates the hierarchy of people and their needs.  Can we really say we are more modern than other communities? o “A move from traditional societies to societies organized around the processes of a market industrial economy, secularization, democratization, and urbanization.” o The myth of acultual modernity- the hierarchy of man  There is defiantly something like this going on in tourism. People who are at the top think they are going to see something from the past and once they get there this is where we see acultural modernity and cultural modernity.  We presuppose that we are at the top and are able to go back into the past- this is something we go for in terms of authenticity in tourism, but maybe this primitive idea may not be what they find but a culture alike theirs is what they find - Questions for today’s class o Why do people engage in tourism? What are tourists looking for in the places they visit? o Why do tourists dislike being tourists? o Does tourism offer the possibility of symmetrical intercultural exchange and understanding or is it domed to reinforce stereotypes?  TA does not have a answer to this question, but she leans towards the time spent in a place and the ability to add onto stereotypes - A definition of Tourism from Hosts and Guests (Valene Smith, Ed.) o A tourist is a temporarily leisured person who voluntarily visits a place away from home for the purpose of experiencing a a form of leisure activity, tourism provides alternative periods f work and relaxation” o It has something to do with labour and leisure- that work is going on and there is enough wealth that the worker has time for leisure o Tourism=leisure time and discretionary income and local sanctions o You have the time to go and travel somewhere and you the money to do that, local sanctions determine what kind of tourism is appropriate- i.e. if you have time off and the income to go away is a norm to go away? Local sanctions are tourism appropriate in your cultural context and the type of tourism- plane vs. bus trip a desire to go somewhere an tell people about it. Ex: in Europe it is common for people to travel by train around Europe, but in the US traveling around the US by bus is strange and this has to do with someone’s social class o Categorizes for tourism  Ethnic tourism: people from one society going to a place that seemed totally exotic and to learn more about that culture. This is marked by customs of indigent people- native homes, dances, and clothing- someone would go to a certain place and except to see something different  Cultural tourism- rustic inns, custom wine festivals, homemade goods and crafts. Things that are not so foreign to you but it is something else than what you are use to  Historical tourism- the ABC of travel, another bloody church and castle- you are trying to learn about other cultures and your own history  Environmental Tourism- cases in which you are gazing on the environment i.e. trip to Antarctica man and land. Going somewhere just to see nature. Eco- tourism means trying to make little impact on the country you are trying to visit- not having a negative impact.  Recreational Tourism- this is when you go to an all inclusive resort for a week and lie on the beach. o The impact of tourism especially what we sees as recreational tourism having the biggest impact than ethnic tourism and cultural tourism. Not always negative but can be positive too. o Tourism can be a bridge to an application of cultural relativity and cultural understanding but it can also be a repetitive business by the hosts. Hosting the tourists can become bored and this can be one answer to why host countries don’t like tourism o Economic goals of mass tourism- host countries can see these tourists as distant between them. o Two models of tourism  Tourism as pilgrimage  “the sacred Journey, Nelson H.H. Graburn”  For a lot of people regular tourism still has some elements of pilgrimage but in a secular aspect- people going to their home land to discover their roots.  Tourism as a rite of passage- people you can afford it- this goes back to Europe in the 18 and 19 centuries and developed the idea of the
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