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Diaspora and Transnational Studies
Kevin Lewis O' Neill

DTS200 Lecture #6 Oct 16, 2012 - Talking about different kinds of metaphors to describe the world. o Child sponsorship- communicates the transnational (crossing of national boundaries), and provides an idea of the local. Internationalism- sense that there are distinct nations in the world which relates to one another. o Case study of child sponsorship- different analysts used to describe the world. Remittances - Remittances: when a diaspora sends money back to the homeland. “a transfer of money by a is not just an economic exchange o Scales of analysis  Local  Global  National  Stat  Tranantional  International  Diasporic  Affective  Not just about the exchange of money but the manipulation of emotions - Affect o In response to everyone being a rational object, but in reality “I don’t think I feel” o Affect is an attention to way that feelings are affected o i.e. child sponsorship: certain images which pull on affective cues that make you feel something. o It is that feeling which accompanies remittances - The numbers: 150 million migrants worldwide sent more than 300 billion dollars US to there families around the world in 2006 - Approximately 10% of the worlds population benefits from remittances. - More than 1.5 billion separate financial transactions take place annually, typically 100, 200, 200 at a time o Remittances are a heartfelt practice which take place constantly o It is the intimacy of the exchange which is appealing - Money sent back home by migrants far exceeds international aid given to developing countries o 300 billion dollars of remittances is a larger monetary development than any other in the world - The map o This map represents the direction of remittances- another way we can map the world o It is regional- focuses on Latin America, Africa, and Asia, and Europe o How much remittances move back to each different region. o How the economist discusses migration- a clip shown in class  I- basic facts: remittances are vital to entire countries. Remittances do not always reach the poorest countries- this is because immigration is expensive.  Ii- look at the spacal metaphors used to talk about the movement of people and money:  What are some of the assumptions of this map: Russia, Asia, and Europe are all separated therefore regional assumptions spoken in broad terms. Makes distinctions between immigration and interregional immigration. Did not speak of anyone leaving north America only people coming  Something which is very powerful- that migration is expensive and middle class countries benefit the most. - Points of connections and disconnections o The idea of which countries benefit the most from migration and remittances. o We are taking about 1.5 billion moments of remittances- exchanges of money around the world o Important qualifications  Burman 49-50  Remittances are funds sent from one place to another...but they are also “an investment in the fullest sense of the world, which includes emotive investments- in places left behind”  “left behind”: child sponsorship, acultural modernity- left your own country and now those still in the country are left behind (progress), it does not just me temporal distancing but that you left someone or somebody behind and you are somewhat responsible for. Longing nostalgia, co-ethnicticity o Our foci...  1. Nostalgia (the past) and Yarning (the future)  The affect dimensions- longer for where you came from and looking forward  Affects of this mediation  2. Cultural as opposed to economic capital  All of this takes place because of affect - I don’t think I feel o Affect is similar to emotion or feeling but has much more to do with the body than either o There is a way you can look at remittances as a calculated effort- i.e. i am going to go to the United States, work three jobs and save 80% and send money back to my family in the home country. But migration and remittance involve feelings which is all affect o Affect is bodily, but emotion isn’t it is very literary. Ex: to be bored could have some affect but you only feel bored because of literary references. o Affect is said is much more reactive and bodily than any of that o Affect is raw, reactive sensation- you don’t think about it o Affect takes place before consciousness and before discourse- ex: bored is quiet conscious, but being surprises, scared or nervous are pre-conscious and discourses-the body is driving a sensation o Examples of affect:  Hair standing on the back of a neck, the warm glow of holiday festivities, the rush of enthusiasm at a political rally.  Ex: the first Obama campaign was straight up affect o Affect does not say that everyone will feel the same, but we are cultivated in early life that we will affect to things in different ways o From the standpoint of affect, society is inscribed on our nervous system and in our flesh before it appears in our consciousness.  Ex: Christmas season- music, smells, taste, cold weather. The ritual of it all is suppose to invoke affect- a bodily reaction  The Christmas industry does this for a lot of reason, generate money, but the point generally stands that we are part of society in which there are parts in society were are affect is affected. o Affect is pre0subjective without being pre-social  Pre-subjective in a sense that it is bodily and your body is reaction  It is entirely social  It is simply an analytic which asks us about the emotions and feelings affect which motivates them to do so- yearn for their future, long for their past  The more we can understand affect we can understand remittances. - What does this have to do with diaspora and transnationalism o Diasporic subjects are feeling subjects o They actually feel stuff o “the name sake”  The story goes- this couple from India moves to NY and the emotional distances that take place while they raise their child in this new world. o For diaspora, the capacity to feel is just as indicative of humanity as the capacity to reason.  Feeling of co-nationness- benefit’s theory is defined by feeling o The study of diaspora has over looked feeling and emotion and remittances are too indulged in the importance of money- this is what we have learned so far  Now we want to look at western union who manipulates feeling for something else th  i.e.: western Union what it was- late 19 century in American west, transfer of money. How do they make money if they just move money? They charge fees. They may connect people but they don’t do nothing much but that?
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