GLG205 Lecture 1

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Department
Earth Sciences
Course
ESS102H1
Professor
Bridget Bergquist
Semester
Winter

Description
GLG205 Lecture 1: Jan 10 , 2013 EARTH SYSTEM: Each system needs matter and energy Earth system has 4 major parts: - Atmosphere: a mixture of gases - Lithosphere: upper part of the solid earth - Hydrosphere: the total water on Earth - Biosphere: living and dead organic matter Two sources of energy for Earth system: - External energy: radiation from the Sun, drives the water cycle and wind cycle - Internal energy: caused within the Earth by radioactive decay (e.g. plate movements) Types of Change: - Gradual: slow over millions/ billions of years - Catastrophic: fast from seconds to centuries - Unidirectional: irreversible change (formation of earth) - Cyclic Rising human pop requires ENERGY and RESOURCE CONSUMPTION  Result: ozone hole, air/ water pollution, deforestation, etc GEOLOGICAL TIME Universe created by a big explosion: THE BIG BANG  Hot clouds of hydrogen and helium formed giving rise to the stars and the planets Evolution of Earth: HADEAN 4.5 – 3.8 billion years ago - Radioactive decay caused melting of the early Earth  leading to internal differentiation: heavy elements (iron, nickel) settled in the inner core, lighter elements settled on the outside forming the mantle - Atmosphere had lots of gases especially CO2 (kept the earth warm in the absence of ozone layer) and no oxygen ARCHEAN 3.8 – 2.5 bya - At 2.4 bya,
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