glg jan 24LG205 January 24.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Earth Sciences
Bridget Bergquist

GLG205 January 24, 2013 Atmosphere - Protects the earth - Shorter wv more energy - Infrared longer wv and ass with heat - Atmosphere traps outgoing ir traps remitted light not incoming - Average temp -15 -18 without greenhouse - Damn enhanced greehnhouse effect - Where oxygen comes from Atmosphere - Density - Air pressure drops as you go up - Up in atmpspheric column airpressure drops - 5km half in air pressure - 90 percent of gas is in lower 15 16 km and most is less dense above that - Atmpsphere filter and buffer of incoming solar radiation Wv - Longer ev lower energy shorter wv more energy - Energy from sun is uv - Sun emits higher energy and is absorbed in higher atmosphere Next - 4 layers, all different things - Different parts of em radioatation penetrate different depths Ingra and visible go deep and uv in stratosphere is uv where ozone layer is - Light make to surface and remitted Different layers - Trop is thicker at equator then at poles and defined by temperature gradient and when inversion occurs - Plus 15 at surface and drops in trop bc radiation absorbed surface of planet ir and drops off - The trop and start inverts and increases again is bc ozone layer absorbing uv radiation - Meso not do a whole lot temp drops off a bit - As thermosphere warms up bc gamma and high energy radiation absorbed - High temps - Not a lot of gas but doing very important absorption Trop - Where we live – know live in troposphere and next is stratosphere - Dynamic air movement - Hot air near surface les dense and rises lower dense on top high density and lot of circulation - Convective layer Stratosphere - Very stable - Stratification - Role of it and convection and why things flow - Stratosphere not a lot of circ low dense on top of dense air nothing driving circulation – some see it aas stable cap of troposphere - Stable system - Cap on weather troppshere - Stable and stratified - Bc of stable column of air - Increase in temp is by absorption of uv by ozone layer - And increase Mesosphere - Boring layer - Not a lot happens - Ozone stopped absorbing so cools off - Ozone little in there Thermo - Little gas less then 1percent of gas atoms there - High energy radiation is absopred Radiation budget - Of solar radiation 70 percent is absorbed and 30 pecent is reflected right off the bat – the earths albedo overall energy budget ofplanet - 70 percent absorbed surface and from particles in air majority is surface - Once absiprbed remitted as ir and leave planet Natural greenhouse - Balcne incoming and outgoing - Incoming short and longer ir bouncing around and absorbed by greenhouse gases The greenhouse effect - 30 sun is reflected back - Of 70 percent most by land and by atmospheric particles remitted ir - Green house gas absorb it and remit it as it - Trap long wl and heat up earth Next - Greenhouse trap 80 percent - They don’t absorb solar radiation outgoing infrared radiation What are greenhouse gases - Role of water vapor largerst greenhouse gas most ir absorption and warmth second is co2 - Co2 second largets all these in no and ozone equal about - Ozone protect from uv in troposphere ozone is part of smog different - A lot of these gases change depending on temp water vapor not - Pump little co2 increase temp bc sig ghg and air mass hold more eater and aplify warming if air mass colles percepeitiate – water vapor not change temp its passice not driver but feedback – temp change then water vapor – not driver but largest ghg and amplified change we make – if cool amplify the cooling bc temp drop less water vapor – amplifies direction of change - They varied always been there makes life possible - 30 degree difference - Happy ghe exist Energy per second - Why they absorb - Why mention important - Incoming shorter wv not a lot absorb incoming in atmosphere - Reimteed ir all gases that absorb in this band - Co2 and h20 high absorbers no2 and methane - 03 high energy Enhanced ghe - Not new thing - In late 1800s and earlier then that - Rough theories 1850s - Arrenhius put number on it – showed based on measured radiatin absorption of co2 doubling co2 lead to plus 5 to 6 degrees - Not change that much - His was bit larger Whats in - Nitrogen oxy and argon the co2 and gaes - 99 is n2 and 02 - Argon is noble gas 1 percent and all else is decimels - .04 co2 and rest is .03 More detail - Top 4 - How quickly drop off to small percentage - Ozone is trace in troposphere .00008 percent - C0 is small as well - Methan quite low C and oxy cycle - Forward photosynthsesi plants take in co2 and water and organic carbon glucose and release o2 - Other thing doing not thermodynaicmally favored so driven by energy no energy to be gotten driven by sunlight - Plants do this - They store it as energy in organic carbon - Take solar energy to chemical energy - Use respiration to get energy back - We do opposite can take energy from sun – take energy plants store in chemical bounds in organic carbon and 02 to co2 and water - We consumer 02 - Majore exchange of energy in plant - Nergy consumed and given off - Energy driver of climate change and global change - How ecoshere is srcuture based on energy and transfer of energy Compsiotion - Information in profile – depth profile concentration of something with depth - Info in profiles - C02 straight line relatively well mixed between trop and stratopspher means long life time not be reactive whne co2 in atmpshere stay there long tim e - 200 years is estimated life time of co2 in atmosher - Co higher near surface and lower as go up – not conservative profice lifetime is shorter - Mixing of atmosphere is 2 years - Co sources are near surface and destroyed in upper atmosphere - Water vapor is passie player with respect to temperature – by understanding temp proficle - Vapor decreases with althitude bc temp decreases - Constant no source of water in stratosphere – temp and water corr in trop not in strato trop big ocean – always saturate and respond with temp not well with stratops - Ozone formed asnd destroyed with uv rxn with oxy in stratosphere - Drops in trop Dust and aerosols - Nesides gas is aerosol and dust - Dust is solid particulate – more inclusicve is aerosol include water droplets that float no heavy to fall as rain – smallest particles solid or liquid is aerosols - High near surface secondary aerosla related to sulphur converted to sulphate – sulphate greate aerosl and - Aerosol is to cool earth – increase reflective component of sunlight more clouds too more reflect less get in Ozone - Need consider two categories good strato and bad trop 03 - Oxygen molecule - And ozone is destroyed - Both absorb radiation from sun - Protect high energy radiation - Trop ozone is major pollutuant anything harmful or iiratating - No2 and other organic components interact with sunlight from cars photochemical rxns and build up in trop and photochemical smog and major component to harmful to human health repsirotry problems - Ozone reactive easily made destroyed trop and strat ozone rarely mix two seperrat pools of zone Strat ozone - Form of zone layer important for development and evo of life - Allowed for development of euk and complex life forms - Without lifeforms planet of bacteria - Rise of oxygen in atmosphere prior to 2.5 as soon built up photochem rxn occur and ozone formed - Ozone 2,.45 billion years - Huge change in planet - More habitiable life forms not protected by water terrestrial systems - Destreucution of strato ozone due to containments increase destrctuon path of zone – antartic and artic dropped to low levels mixture amplified in poles and dropped everywhere bc of cfc and other compounds make it to strat increase destrucution no increase in source rxn Trop - Fossil fuel pollutant and hydrocarbons and sunlight harmful to humans Crirculation - Focus on troposphere - Weather everyday experience rep by storm - At given location all variables at given location define weather of day - Climate at average not daily extreme night cold day warm rained but average of month - Rainfall per moneth or temp define temp - Diurnal cycles climate is composite of variables averaged over years and larger regional global scale Temp differences - Both ocean and atmposphere – circulation driven by differences in heath differences in temperature mian driver of things in planet - Density important driving convextion - Fluids n planet redistribute heat from solar radaiton which comes in at equator - Take heat and drive poleward whe
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