GLG205 January 31.docxglg 205 jan 31

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Department
Earth Sciences
Course
ESS102H1
Professor
Bridget Bergquist
Semester
Winter

Description
GLG205 January 31, 2013 35 MC AND 1 PAGE SA – WHAT DRIVES ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION WATER resovoir - 97 water ocean salt - Small 3 percent two thirds glacier - Less then 1 surface water - Small in biota - Biggest impact on freshwater are fossil fuel use and agriculture Freshwater - A lot in cryosphere or glacial - Two thirds fresh water budget - Not accessible human use Greenland continental ice sheets there Cryoshpere - Most locked in Greenland or antartica - 800k ice core records sample trap gas back in the day - Global temp and percipiation - So thick – sample core chronology of time - Not important fresh water but climate change their melting where they melt high altitude dense water form when add fresh water harder for it to become dense - Melt all Greenland and artica 60m of immediate sea rise - Isostatic rebound 5 million years 100m overall Groundwater - Most important - Ogallall – drained 50 percent by agriciulture Next - Percepiation comes down - Run into stream lake s river lake some perulate to ground and store in underground aquifers some confined under pressure confining layer some unconfined somethnf permeable tap into them through wells - Confined like bc pressure drive natural flow nothing fancy get at water Next - Groundwater discharge into river or coast into ocan - Or actively pumped by humans and changes flow path of underground aquifer - Coast down make saltwater intrusion into aquifers - Recharge varaibilty of timescales unreneweable bc not renewable on human time scales Surface water - Streams pomds and lake small perxent total water - Considered renewable bc constantly refreshed - Fed by rain and getter new rain and refreshed renewable only certain amount - How much agrciultrure get from one river - Withdraw 30 percent without impacting ecosystem that rely on river many more then 30 percent Watershed - Area drains into single river - Small stream the valley around it - The missisipi is really large shed - All water percipatie not in ground water make way into missiisipi to gulf of mexico - Wqatershed large or small Global water issues - Demand for food and water problems mord and more serious and quality of water of whther drinkable or not - Quite large transboundary – bc one polluting and goes downstream how hold another country responsible - Not own an aquifer can own surface water if own land - Issues of coastel aquiders and salt water intusuion Biosphere - Anything living or dead – organic chemist definition made of reduced carbon that is biological origin - Ecosohere the biospshere and other system interaction Ecosphere - Graoh majority of life lives in habitable zone 100m below sea level to 6000 m above sea level - Life exist above and below losw not make a lot of biomass on planet Biodiversity - Number of species given area - Different ways – classic is common morpholigalc or gentic or function on earth what they did - Recent advances dna sequencing more sophisticated genealogical relationships established Class on geneology - Viruses are acellulr no cell dna and rna floating around need other life to exist - Prok and wuk have cell walls prok nucleus is free no separate membrane euk more sophisticated separate nucleus membrane Prok spread in smaller grups - 2 main groups of prok bacteria and archera - Make up bulk of life on planet - Exist 3.4 3.5 billion to present - Euk till about 2 billion - Ancient life forms - Set up in many biogeochemical cycles - Pic of microbial mat fossilized from cyanobacteria Unicellular - Many photosynthesis in ocean Fungi - Decomposers in nature decvaying organic matter can be uni multiclelular as well Plane - Plants - Also be unicellular - Plants single cell organisms - Photautotrops primary producers use water co2 and light Animals - Only multicellular - Distinguished need to ingest complex organic matter rely on other kingdoms to survive How ecosystems work - Pro and euk What Is ecolo - Study of interactions of organism and surrounding - Abiotic ecerything non living Next - Various scales - Hodegebodu of all sciences Eco org - At individual - Pop Is group - Group of same species in given area - Community all pop of all different species - Ecosystem – all biotic interaction as well as community interaction - Know biomes in Canada - Biome – make up many ecosssyems - Biospehere – all living We need matter and energy – fundamental concept of class Where energy - Capacity or ability to do work - Need energy to do everything that we do - All to maintain general fucntioing Energy - Potential - when sunlight converted to organic carbon that energy is stored in reduced carbon bonds - Kinietic – Thermodynamics 2ns law - Total amount - Entropy always increasing – amount do work Is going decreases - Degree of disorder - Some is always losed to heat dispersed to universe never used again Energy through - Autotrophs – prdoce reduced organic matter by sunliht these are phototrophs - Hetero need to consume Producers - Make own food - Phottrop photosynth – equation have to know - Carb is more reduced carbon - Took something stable in earths atmosphere to inherently thermodynnaiclly unstable - Has to be driven by
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