glg205 feb 14

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Department
Earth Sciences
Course
ESS102H1
Professor
Bridget Bergquist
Semester
Winter

Description
GLG205 February 14, 2013 Continental shelf and open ocean - Different in biology chemistry - Pelagic – water column - Benthic – anything that lives on te botoom Opne ocia - Pelagic both shalwllow phtoc light can penetrate - And aphotic which is must of the ocean dark cold and deep - Benthic – open ocean realy deep not a lot of life lot of bacteria, Major ocean life zones - Contnentnal shelf regions 100 to 200 me - Pretty shallw - Contnintenal shelf drop off - Upper photc zone and deep - Live on sinking organic matter - Respiration in deep ocean but single ceeled organisms - Benthic of shelf is photosytnhize Benthic - Anything ocean floor attached to sediments - Shallow zone - Big ecosystems like coral and seagreass and kelp high productivity and diversity of organism - Richest is mid ocean ridges living heat and energy mied ocean spreading centers heat from interior of the earth Coral reeds - Ocran impacts one system is coral reef - Soft bodies organisms make homes out of calcium carbonate - Coral reefs big one make home out of it - Coral perseverd in limestone - Reefs are funny warm shallow calm water – strict temperature range not too turbulent not a lot of wave action - Clear – changes to coastal environment and hate increased erosion in continents The worlds corals - Live between 30 and 30 not too much further then to burmuda - Cluster in there Coral reefs - Like rainforest of marine system – most diverse place of organisms - Over half marine species live in ass of coral reef system - Benefits - Ecosystem services – one way politicians or ecologist package ecosystem - Protecting coastlines – break waves come in - High prudctiuvity lots of fisheries ass with them – for recreastion and tourism - Pharm coming drugs of coral reef organism – help with cataract - Like rainforest half pharm from there - Coral reef is another place looking destroying it before finding out Sea grasses - Similar coral reefs - Provide habitat - Sea grass shlaowow high producitivtiy kelp - Anaimsl ass with corals are and kelps photos - Habitiat for many organisms as well Pelagic - Water column on shelf - Shefl region high productivity - highest in ocean is shelves bc nutruients are dense here and upwelling - Rich nutrients upwelling and river that don’t make to open ocean used in coast - All photic zone - Lots photsyn and large base food chain then much larger food web higer tropic organisms like to eat The open ocean - Look 50 m done bc not a lot of productivity, coast only few m bec phytoplankton bc organism phot - Subtropical gyres ocean deserrs - Chloryphll pigment in plant material – proxy primary producers - Most of ocean is pretty low - Open ocean highest prodicty is ass with high latitudes - In high lat of land not water to break down soil and permafrost ocean organism not care about water care about nutrients – bc have upwelling - North atlantic closed heavily by continests so get continental input from weathering then south pacific no continent for almost anywhere - Prodcutivty with equatirila level bc upwelling along western coast of continests and carried westward - Desolate there - Single cell in open ocean - At least 20 to 50 done by organism cyanobacteria ancient life forms - Lots of photosytnesis contrast to terresrterial photo done by trees or big plants The open ocean - Live at midocean ridges or heterotrops eat rained from surface - Adapted own light source - Hard to keep organisms alive bc need high pressure - Know is from dead ones - High diversity bc lot of different organisms and adapted to live in extremem enviroemnt but low density Human impacts - Climate chmage for oceans and coral reefs - And result in ocean acidification - Fishing on coastal regions - Invasive spacies on boats and released other places – truck in organism s - Overfishing - Pollution – 25 percent is by catch is tossed away and killed not considered what want to catch - And coasral devleopemnt Human impacts - In science top journals - Highlight open ocean - 40 percent ocean is seriously impacted by humans Biomasss and productivity - Amount of living organic matter in certain area - Phytomass – most of biomass orimary profdcuers - Most primary producers are photosyn organisms not hetertropes living on energy from another soruces - Most are terrestrial - Producutivty – how biomass is formed - Terrestrial eco take more carbon then marine and store more in plant matter Terr vs marine - Teresrerial have a lot of structures – large store houses of organic matter - Save energy for a rainy day - Terrestrial organisms soend more energy on movement then marine - Marine grow rapidly – plants single cell grow rapidly and quickly grazed reproduced rapidly and go to high tropic levels not a lot of carbs bc don’t store expensive to make organic matter – they are protein rich - Carbon residence time is very different in these two pools - Mean time carbon in terresterila is 10 years - Turn over in ocean is weeks to months Evolution - How climate impact different types of evolution - Define evolution and succession which is ecosystem evolution how responds not genetic standpoint and repsoind much faster Evo - Part of evo anchored in Darwin - Favoroable vs unfaviroable Evo result - A lot of random mutation happen once a while one improve chance species reproductive suruvual and succeed past on to next generation - Enough get new species – unable to breed with older model and have fertile offispring Natural sleelction - Green brown beetles - Green not produce and go extinct all organe ones - 4 observation s first overproduction - Not know anything about genetic mutation or transfer of genes - Need variation Natural slelction - Not know anyting bout genetics - Evidence for evolution - Fossil record probably the strongest - Modern world backed up with molecular biology Fossil record - Main way know evo occurred is in fossil record - Organisms change over time - Horse record - How horses change over last 50 million years get bigger in fossil record something selecting for them to get bigger Comaprive anatomy - Similarities bones are structured across species – shared common ancestor - Different organisms basic strcuutrue - Forelimbs changed most developed form common ancestor Molecular biology - Number of nucleotides in a gene and how many they have in common and how related organisms are humans to pig then tuna and molecular clock argument further apart older diverge from evolution - Timefrom molecule clocks not good bc not happen in smooth way, punctuated evolution for example Climate change and evolution - Smooth evo of horses if lots of changes over time or big jump before lot of things get killed off and something blows up and goes through own mutations and radiates to other envuroemnets - What to see major climate changes there have been major extinctions - Permian ass with large global warming and ocean axonic even t - Kt no ass with co2 - Thermal extinction – 56 mya as with climate change - All ass with major change in org and ecosystem Another way to adapt - Through suceesion - Much faster then evo bc evo requires generations and mutation - Get community change relative abundance of organisms or shifts higher latitude - Community succession is what it is called - One eco replaced by another not requuuore evo of organism but migration of them ecosystems - Evo millions of years this 10s of years Primary - Just rock - Surface scraped clean by glacier or new lava flow like Hawaii start with nothing - Start forming soil – liken and mosses move in - Need something get soil started higher order organism cant live without soil Rock then water and temp to break down rock soil get shrubs come in and shrubs more breakdown of rock get something like trees – 100s of years usually depending where you are Hawaii warm wet climate Secondary - Start with something - Wildfire but still good soil not start liken or mosses shrubs come in - Abonaodn corn field farming then they leave – faster primary sucession not need likens and moss to make soil Next - Leaves some grasses and shrubs then to seedlings and growing biomass for a while then mature forest photsyn and respiration in balance - Carbon systm tempereate forest in deciduous in north America china and Europe deforested hear and Europe reforerst – 25 percent suck up carbon terrestrial carbon and results of new forests planted by more carbon phot then respiration but mature forest it will be equal Chapter 7 Sceicne and questions regarding - Pepoeple phsycis carbon phsycis - Elements important for proper functioning - Hwo humans societies function 2 - What controls them in differ scales time and spatial scales - Drviers drive change but also the feedbacks - Feedback soething kicks in amplifies or counteracts the change – feedback control the system - Concerned how have changed biogechemical cycles - And how change them in future can predict that intervene or manage - Lot of question scienceitist grabble around in earth systems science Constructing - Fiest thing is resovioir – physically defined sphere as a sunsatnce – ocean resovoir of one element - Atmposphere is anoterh - Biosphere and scosphere split into living biomass and soils and different residence time to different resovoir of an element - Path – path trnafered one reso to andother - Flux amount per time – path and how much is transferred and what time scales - Residence time – rep time element might spend in a resovoir – not absolutes but es
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