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September 16.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Earth Sciences

th th September 16 (continued from September 14 ) Renaissance (and post-Renaissance) in Europe o Founding of universities:  1088 Bologna; Paris, Pauda, Oxford (~1096) and Cambridge, Heidelberg 1385 o Intellectual independence (founded by scholars, not church or state) - Jean Buridan (Paris, 14 century) o Land mostly on one hemisphere o Erosion moves mass from land to ocean o Because centre of Earth’s mass is centre of universe - Rene Descartes (Paris 1596-1650) o Philosopher (“cogito, ergo sum”) o Mathematician (algebraic geometry) o Earth made of shells: metal, fire, water, air, rock o Outer shell of rocks cracked and collapsed into water  Present configuration of oceans and continents - Thomas Burnet (1635-1715) o Book: Telluris Theoris Sacra (scared theory of the Earth) considered biblical account an accurate historical record, with which any science had to be consistent o Modified Descartes’ model (materials with increasing densities in shells but crust still on top of water) o The Biblical flood was identified with the collapse of this crust into the ocean th QUESTION: name 3 problems why science did not progress with the 17 century 1. Authority 2. Reading, no books printed 3. No meetings to exchange ideas 4. No scientific method 5. No working together 6. Observations led to explanations but these explanations weren’t linked to a cause 7. Anthropocentric Modern empirical science begins o Galileo (physics, 1594-1642)  Recorded quantitative measurements of motion  Dropped a big rock and a small rock from the top of the leaning tower of pisa to prove that they fall at the same speed o Robert Boyle (chemist, 1627-1691)  Experiments under controlled conditions describe apparatus, procedures, and observations experiment can be repeated by anyone else, ie. Conclusions linked to evidence o Nicholas Steno (geology, 1638-1686_  Elaborated in print on fundamental ideas about rocks - Communication and archival of data and ideas ****September 16 begins here********************** The Origin of Rocks Early Classifications - In the Middle Ages minerals and rocks were assigned magical powers o Ex. Onyx (tree tears), stag tears, bezoar, draconites, bufonites - Georgius Agricola (1494-1555) o Born Georg Bauer in Saxony, attended university in Leipzig, Bologna, and Padua, practiced medicine in Joachimsthal (a mining centre) o Duke of Saxony was his patron o Book on “De Re Metallica” (1555) “On the nature of metals”  Review of everything then known about mining, including equipment and machinery, means of finding ores (rejected use of divining-rods), methods of surveying, digging, assaying ores, smelting, mine administration, and even occupational disease of miners  He noted that rocks were laid down in layers (or strata) and that these layers occurred in consistent order and could be traced over a wide area  True for sedimentary rocks, but not for igneous rocks; his knowledge was limited by what he could see  “I have omitted all those things
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