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lecture 2

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University of Toronto St. George
Earth Sciences

Wednesday, September 15, 2010 Lecture 2- The origin of minerals and rocks *Questions on last class: What are 2 aspects of doing science? + What was the cosmic hypothesis and why did geophysicists give it up? Middle Ages o Minerals and rocks were assigned magical powers. Ex: onyx (tree tears), stag tears, bezoar, draconites, bufonites o The first universities were founded during this time by scholars, not church or state. (intellectual independence) 1088 Bologna; Paris, Padua, Oxford (~1096) and Cambridge, Heidelberg 1385 Renaissance o Printing (Gutenberg, 1450) huge step for science allowed for ideas to be disseminated Books circulated amond literate masses before: rare handwritten copies wood (later copper) engravings allowed for beautiful pictures o museums- collections of plants, animals and minerals (3 kingdoms of nature now open to the public important to development of science bc ppl could observe and compare o Leonardo Da Vinci [1452-1519] Self-taught artist, inventor, naturalist Left many notebooks , over 5000 sheets Thoughts on geology are dispersed in notebooks He was especially interested in engineering, in river hydraulics (canals, drying of marshes) Argues that valleys are created by rivers and mountains are destroyed by rain and rivers Excellent observer: noted that sediments form ordered pile near seashore (e.g. rock layers at bottoms and mountains in the background of painting St. Anne with virgin and child) But his thoughts were not of benefit to others, isolated in space and time o Georguis Agricola [1494- 1555] De Re Metallica Born Georg Bauer in Saxony Attended university in Leipzig, Bologna, and Padua Practiced medicine in Joachimsthal (a mining centre, he worked very courageously during the 1552-53 plague) Duke of Saxony was his patron Aside:
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