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Lecture 2

week 2 lecture 2.docx

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East Asian Studies
Course Code
David Chai

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Week 2 Reading#1 The Tang Period - Taoism went through a great period of expansion, largely because ruler's last name was Li - claimed Laozi as an ancestor and elevated status of Daoism - Taoism's stated purpose was the establishment of a Great Peace throughout the empire - Rebellions were launched to restore an order that had been compromised by a failing dynasty or emperor from whom the mandate of heaven had been withdrawn - Gaozong claimed Laozi to be an incarnation of the Primordial Chaos - Xuanzong made Taoism an official teaching and incorporate it into the civil service exam - trying to harmonize the 3 teachings, Xuanzong wrote commentaries on Dimond Sutra, Classics of Filial Piety and Daodejing Lecture#2 Daoism - plays a very important role in the dev't of Chinese philosophy most importantly on Neo-Confucianism - not very philosophical but religious; in Tang Daoism is more popular on the local level than others - Neo-Confucianism borrows a lot of terms that emerged in this period - Chinese philosophy is about continuity rather than abrupt changes happened in vacuums (western) Gaozong: - reign relatively short compared to Kangxi and Qianlong - contribution to dev't of Taoist religion (moving away from philosophy)  Laozi's 2 names: Lao Dan, Li Er >> taboo because same last name with the royal family - said Li Er is actually their ancestor; trace family history all the way back to Laozi - give more legitimacy to his reign by relating to a famous philosophy; he's a patriot of Daoism - official support of the royal family, elevating status of Daoism classics higher than Confucianism - make Laozi their divine ancestor, make him a god and deified him and made him immortal - "Supreme Emperor of Primal Mystery" 台上玄元皇帝; doesn't really mean anything - made the Dao De Jing a part of the state curriculum, built Taoist temples >> more income - in the middle Tang it will add Zhuang Zi to the civil service exam - Daoist Canon: encyclopedia of all Daoism works, hundreds of texts; main text w/ diff. commentaries - btw there's also a Confucius Canon and a Buddhist Canon - priest given titles and ranks elevating them above Confucians such as Princes; promoting Daoism Xuanzong: - a continuation, he's an actual Daoist priest in the Shang Qing school - he invited scholars to come to the capital: Chang An & Luo Yang; academic meeting and lecture on Daoist philosophy - Dao De Jing was carved on stone (happened to Confucian classics in the Han dynasty), require every family to have a Daodejing Week 2 - he wrote a commentary on the Daodejing and the Yijing; expansion on the temple on a larger scale Relationship to Buddhist: - Daoist are strongly opposed to Confucian "unnatural" ideas; Buddhism was still relatively new, people thought it's a diff. branch - Buddhists borrowed a lot of Daoist vocabularies to gain support, since it needs to be translated they just use exited terms - both use charms, form ritual ceremonies, involved in medicine; Chinese medicine is rooted in Daoism; Yin-Yang & 5 elements - dev't alchemy, burning metal & mixing w/ medicinal products; most famous was gold >> seen as closest thing to heaven - sharing terms of Existence & Non-Existence; being & non-being; but means diff. thing - wu in Buddhism = emptiness, emptying out one's mind of consciousness, part of the purification - you = that of Buddha, the true Buddha; the heart, mind, Buddha - you in Daoism = everything, all living and non-living things; in time Buddhist work out new terms - ti = refers to the body of a thing/ substance, physical presence of you is the body; then there must has a use - yong = function, purpose - 3 heavens; 3 pure ones; 5 agents (Daoism) vs 4 agents (Buddhism) - Zhuangzi : Chaos (hundun); Dao gives birth to One, One gives birth to Two...One is Chaos; undifferentiated wholeness - how the being and non-being come together will determine the substance and its use >> Daoism - gan-ying: stimulus and response - the void: things are there but they are never really there  Buddhist when meditating, empty yourself of conscious, you are an empty thing, a shell in which Buddha enters  Daoism it's more about the state of one's being, ontology, existence, the nature of one's substance - during this time in order to distinguish Daoist w/ Buddhism, the Chinese started to make Dao into something else and becomes Li (Reason); in this time period it's refering to Dao as cause of the natural ordering of universe (can't be studied b/c changing) - in Neo-Confucianism, it became the natural ordering that can be studied and know only through human reason - as humans we have rational mind which allows us to think and makes us superior - Buddhism sees the truth of reality as a illusion where as Daoism sees it as freedom; 自由; how was it expressed? - where does Truth come from and who creates Truth? Truth as freedom doesn't come from humanity, but from Dao, only Dao - if we want to be free, it's not about using logic or scientific methodology, it's means joining & becoming one w/ Dao - it's freedom only when you accept that things exists the way they do because Dao allows them to be like that - chaos to being and non-being, that's the danger zone, the start of reason b/c of the dividing and extinguishing - when two to three you begin naming things, and further away from Dao because it's not one whole anymore - Buddhism says it's all empty and illusion, Daoist say you need to learn how to experience that oneness instead of dismiss it - Buddhism use quietism, sitting and meditating in order to meditate mind, Daoism use non-action, not using rational mind - everything in Daoism is about balance, harmony, everything always reach the middle ground: known as the middle way Week 2 - in Daoism: accepting right and wrong, being and non-bring, not choosing sides & accepts both; in Buddhism: denying both, - emphasize feminine quality as the good qualities, male as bright: display or show yourself, don't step back and let others do things, rigid, male is Yang and always have attributes as bright; feminine as soft, dark, hide yourself; able to preserve self - philosophies were dev't at a war time so it was about preserving life and survival, it goes on to the peace and prosperous time; king need to be in the dark to keep alive and let officials do things for him - daosim is to live life as long as possibly can; one way is to darken oneself, in the shadow; to let people forget about you - Buddhist: never ending cycle of birth and death until you are Enlightened and then you can enter heaven which is nirvana - Daoism: similar cycle of change and transformation, you are not reborn as your formal self, consciousness is totally different - die & go back to Dao, Qi is reborn; people mix Daoism & Buddhism and
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