Lecture 1 - Tokugawa.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
East Asian Studies
Sara Osenton

EAS246 Lecture 1 JAN24/2013 Edo? Early Modern? Tokugawa? - Early Modern (1568-1868)  1868 when Tokugawa shogunate ends - Tokugawa Period (1608-1868)  began when the Tokugawa shogunate actually began with Tokugawa Ieyasu; when the actual system of power changed - Edo Period (1616-1868)  geographical explanation; when center of power/location of power moved from Kyoto to Edo (modern Tokyo)  When the Edo period began there were 30 million people in Japan in 1616  large # of people living in a small place Feudal Map of Japan - Has no Hokkaido or Okinawa  smaller Japan than today Warring States Period - Unification of Japan began with Oda Nobunaga  Born in 1534 – regional lord; he came from Nagoya; poor family  He was born in the midst of the warring states period – war lasted for 100 years  Warring states began with Ashikaga and their problems with succession leading to civil war in the country  By the time Nobu comes along, warring has consolidated to several larger areas that were th warring across the country  by the mid-16 c., only a few daimyos survived ceaselessly struggling for power across the country  While he proclaimed loyalty to Ashikaga, he worked on his own to unify the country using his motto: “Tenka Fubu”  extend the military throughout Japan  He was not a shogun, never!  but he was important to bringing together this power system;  He didn’t accept the title of shogun and his only claim to power/leadership was his confidence to rule and his military might  In 1582, he was assassinated by his vassal (Akemitsu Hide?) b/c he was killed he didn’t fully unified Japan  Accomplishments  Disrupted the power held by temples  temples at the time held a lot of power that can influence decisions  i.e. Enryakuji in Mt. Heia  involved in political/military intrigued  burned to the ground for siding against Nobunaga; slaughtered everyone, including women and children (3000+ killed)  i.e. fought against the Ikō sect  slaughtered  Saw the first arrival of Christianity  Lots of interests with traders/foreigners because they brought with them muskets  For a little while, Jesuits were tolerated as they come hand-in-hand with traders and muskets  Arquebus/muskets  slow to load and fire, have a range of 100 ft/m; therefore, not very good and efficient  Firearms brought change in Japan; changed the face of samurai warfare  traditional way was imbued with valor, bravery, manliness, samurai values as two samurais fought face to face; but with the introduction of firearms, you know have ranks of faceless warriors facing other faceless samurais  Changes to the structure of the economy in Japan shows that not only was Nobu mighty, but he was also organizing Japan; he wasn’t just ruthlessly killing people (reign of terror?) but he was also attempting to organize a disunited Japan  Broke down guilds (associations of diff. kinds of producers nad merchants) stops the nobles from having monopoly over goods, allowing for a freer movement of trade  Gets rid of the system of checkpoints, which, along trade routes stopped goods from moving freely in Japan EAS246 Lecture 1 JAN24/2013  Most important commodity = rice = money  rice as incomes, taxes, trade o When Nobu came to power, there were different kinds of measurements (like different kinds of currency) o Instituted the koku – a boxed measurement of rice (1 koku = 180.39 L of rice)  Enough to feed 1 person per year (½ L per day) ~ roughly 8-9 onigiri per day  Each lords’ income were calculated in how many kokus of rice they have - all their vassals were paid in koku, their taxes paid in koku  Standardization of ‘currency,’ of this method of measurement – it enable easier transaction and a smoother management  Koku system later adopted, not in his lifetime, nationwide  Instituted land surveys – to determine how many koku each piece of land produces; how much they can tax and how much they produced  He set out institutional changes for the way in which things were organized  Well known for building the Azuchi Castle, overlooking Biwa – does not exist today anymore - Following Nobunaga was Toyotomi Hideyoshi  Humble beginnings – debate over whether he was a peasant or from a low-class samurai family  Different upbringing, samurai background that the others have  Runaway because didn’t get along with step-father  Became Nobu’s followers, quickly rising through the ranks  When Nobu was killed, Hideyoshi avenges him, then he
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