Lec 8 - End of Bakufu.docx

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East Asian Studies
Sara Osenton

EAS246 Lecture 8 MAR28/2013 End of the Bakufu Bakumatsu (1853-1868) - Submit or fight? - Time of violence and murder  many young extremists - Sonnō jōi = “revere the emperor, expel the barbarian” - Social conditions weakened the bakufu o Changes at the end of Tokugawa  Proto-industrialization of the countryside  Conflict between merit and hierarchy  Changes to distribution of wealth o Changes led to Reforms  Kyoho, Kansai, and Tempo o Recall: Satsuma and Choshu  successful at reforms and maintaining their wealth o Outside pressure from the West  Commodore Perry and “friendship treaties”  came in 1853  Panic in Japan when Perry came  Bakufu requested that daimyo submit their advice in writing on how to best deal with the Americans  Perry returned to Japan in 1854  Bakufu agreed to allow American ships to stop over in the relatively remote ports of Shimoda and Hakodate  Americans gained the right to station a consul in Shimoda (1856)  Unequal Treaties (1858)  Japan had no right to decide tariffs and the Japanese court could not judge foreign criminals in Japan (extraterritoriality)  Gave the US the same rights they lost in China during the Opium War (?)  Japan agreed to the treaties because negotiation was impossible and war was futile  8 ports open to the US  tariffs decided by the US (tariffs = tax on import and export of goods)  Similar treaties were signed with other countries  the person who signed the treaties were later assassinated  Unlike China, Japan was able to ban Opium – they didn’t have to deal with the problem of opium addiction, only had to deal with the unfair treaties  With trade, financial situation in Japan changed - Foreign Settlement o Foreigners restricted on foreign settlements like Yokohama and other ports o 1860 – landing of Japanese Embassy at Navy Yard in Washington  just before the Civil war  US lost focused on Japan for a while because of the civil war  escaped US aggression  Japanese embassy toured the US  Japanese identity starts to emerge to protect history, tradition, etc (?) - Opening of Japanese ports led to significant social and economic changes o Technology  foreigners brought new ideas, technology, industry and systems, and the Japanese began to absorb them very rapidly. But they were also afraid of Europeans’ superior military power o Commodities  Silk and tea suddenly found huge overseas markets. The rising output and soaring prices of these commodities enriched farmers who produced them.  Led to inflation  Farmers began to buy imported clothes made in England (previously, they used to wear homemade or secondhand clothes only. o Economics  Gold in Japan could be purchased with silver coins for about one-third the going global rate  Europeans buy gold in Japan with their silver and sell the gold back in England to get more silver and the cycle repeats  Sucks the gold out of Japan  It took the Tokugawa time to figure out what was going on – they were bleeding gold. EAS246 Lecture 8 MAR28/2013  Attempted to standardized gold to the same global rate  screwed up Japanese currency and internal economic structure o Social  A new merchant class ("Yokohama merchants") emerged to link domestic producers and markets with foreign merchants (who could not travel outside the foreign settlement).  Inflation surged, impoverishing samurais and urban population. The entire price structure was transformed after the port opening as old industries and traditional merchants declined and new ones emerged.  Led to riots (over rice prices)  1868: worst
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