LARISSA – AFTERLIFE OF IMAGES
- Chinese history timeline and western timeline differs
o Chinese timeline had early Chinese inventions like bronze casting, printmaking, gun
o Western timeline had industrial technology, optical engineering, and anaesthetics.
- There was a picture of a child with small pox, which is to signify china’s invention of the practice
of vaccination as a technological achievement in advance of the west.
o However, French books wrote that the small pox in china is more serious and deadly,
hence, saying that china’s vaccination is far from good, indicating a sense of
- Chinese sources had images of smallpox on woodblock prints in the text (baize tu, hundred
children pictures). After translation, the image had gone from representing health to disease
and even death, as well as from representing treatments to perceived severity of the Chinese
- However, after the images returns to Qianlong imperial archive, its value had been restored to
represent Chinese advancement as compared to the west.
- Leitmotif is medical term for the need of visual materials, which is to use a proof, to persuade
others of the medical technique
- In a sense, Chinese writings were hieroglyphic (symbol), they did not read and write in the
conventional sense, it was reasoned.
- Central premise of this book is that the impressions these images (small pox) had secondary
meanings, such as Chinese race, pathology, culture, identity instead of just the disease.
- In 19 century, china was seen by the west as the sick man of asia, as well as the original home
of the plague.
- Many ideas were associated with Chinese culture with illness.
- People said that the Chinese worship a goddess, who has super-intending power over the small
o This malady goddess is supposed to have originated among the Chinese and spread to
o The spreading of the smallpox is due to failed therapeutic practice in china. Argued that
it wouldn’t be at this situation if they adopted jennerian (a kind of people) vaccination.
- Short essays proclaimed that small pox existed in china for 3000 years
- As the procedure of vaccination was risky, where France prohibited, china imperial government
took the deliberate steps towards endorsing the practice of vaccination within its own ranks,
employing specialists to practice their art not only to kangxi and Qianlong but on other
members of the imperial retinue. They are honoured as national medical academy. Tai yi yuan. - Qianlong then supported the practice by sponsoring “the golden mirror of medical orthodoxy”
which aid in the specific diagnoses of different cases but also a skillful complication of existing
treaties on small pox.
- Why cibot (person) said small pox occurred in china for 3000 years.
o Argued that when small pox was at its original state, it was rarely seen to be fatal and
normal herbs can cure it. Argued that the Chinese had made small pox evolve from a
harmless form to a fatal form.
o It was due to the moral climate and how people’s response to the small pox that made it
develop into a fatal form.
- In another book, the golden mirror, says that pox were on fetus, but never to return. Human are
meant to be pure and simple. But disease came after Lust, went out of control (rampant).
- When cibot’s medical practice went to france, it was misunderstood. Due to 2 conclusions, that
the inoculation (vaccination practice) had been abandoned fatalism even after doing it, and that
smallpox was much more severe in china than it was in Europe.
- How china became the cradle of small pox
o Historians of smallpox in china neglected to account for the ideological power of
narrative in the construction of notions of disease and transmission, resulting to a
complex misunderstanding about china in the present day.
LYDIA – Tokens of exchange
- Universalism thrives on difference, it does not reject difference but translation needs to be
treated with caution.
- The acceleration of globalization aft