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Lecture Notes for Oct. 21, 2010

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University of Toronto St. George
East Asian Studies
Young Yoo

EAS217 2010-10-21 th Roh Tae Woo; 6 Republic; Popular Vote; Seoul Olympics; Roh 36%; Kim YS 27%; Kim DJ 26%; Kim JP 8% - Z2]}Lo]ZK8ZµL[s successer only 36%; Chun[s intention; Mikhail Gorbachev; Bush; Nordpolitik = Northern Policy; Hungary (1989) Russia (1990) China (1992); Roh[s Restoration of Democratic Rule; Eight-Point Program; ^transitory democracy_; ^post-democratization Era_; ^less warlike and more peaceful_; ^end of Military Authoritarian State_ 1987 J Roh[s Eight point Program Æ 1988 J Seoul Olympics Æ Nordpolitik Æ 1990 Gorbachev Bush Æ 1989~1992 J Diplomatic Re- Communist bloc Æ * Taiwan ¾ Chun Doo Hwan - tried to purify the society and politicians ¾ To Chun[s government, the most watchful political opponent = Kim Dae Joong (popular political figure) ¾ Kim was considered as impure and ideologically polluted under the notions of the Chun government Æ Charged under Martial law command Æ communist connection and anti- government actions + crime of inciting student uprising in Seoul and Kwangju Incident ¾ Kim DJ was given a death sentence; later on, death sentence Æ life imprisonment ¾ Lawmakers in US and Koreans overseas pressured Chun[s government to change its attitude towards Kim[s sentence o In 1990, Kim DJ invited foreigners as a show of gratitude for their support ¾ Kwangju J in South Chulla Province (Kim :[s home province) ¾ Kwangju Incident J occurred in May 18 th ¾ Early 1980s J dark political era Æ power struggles and rival hostilities, martial law Æ political instability and unstable economic situation o Similar political situation as early 1960s J Lee SM Æ Yoon BS Æ Park Jung Hee ¾ In the spring of 1980, there were large scale demonstrations in Seoul, Jeonju, and Daejeon, etc. ¾ Massive demonstrations against Chun Æ Kim YS and Kim DJ J popular oppositions and leaders of student demonstrations in the early 1980s ¾ Demonstration against government Æ government initiated martial law ¾ Many leading politicians (including Kim DJ) were arrested. o There occurred a violent uprising in KwangjuCity J seized weapons and occupied government buildings, broadcasting studios, etc. o A huge clash between the public and student vs. police and military ¾ In order to suppress protestors, Chun despatched regular military unit early in the morning Æ about 2,000 students were massacred by the military sent by Chun Doo Hwan. ¾ The government denied that they had murdered anyone innocent, and launched an effort to tighten security and limit individual freedom ¾ During the Chun[s regime, more than 100,000 students were expelled from higher educational institutions. o During the time of Park Jung Hee, Presidents of universities were appointed to retired military officers ¾ Even up to today, the exact and detailed number of those who died during the Kwangju incident is not known. ¾ Korean society in 1980s Æ Anti Americanism arose among the students o Students start to study Juche Ideology (ï‘ÌØ) and Communism o Many Koreans believeUS supported Chun[s presidency b/c US did not prevent Chun, and therefore shared responsibility for Kwangju Incident for approving Chun[s dispatch of army to the city ƒ US-ROK Joint Command (1978) Æ US Commander has the right to dispatch Korean military to other places (–·| is in US military commander[s hands) N President alone did not have the full authority ƒ There was no evidence that US conspired or supported Chun during Kwangju Incident o Other reasons strengthening the Anti-Americanism ƒ General Wickeham J Commanding General of American forces in Korea J had an interview with Los Angeles Times, saying that he[s in support of Chun and that other Koreans were in line like Zlammings[ N His metaphor of how he described the Korean people upset Koreans ƒ February 2 , 1981, President Reagan invited Chun to US for the first time after Reagan was elected. (First state guest) Æ provided ample vision for Koreans to believe that US government was in support of Chun[s government ¾ Student[s Anti-government demonstrations o 1910 ~20s J against Japanese colonization o 1950~60s J against Rhee Seung Man o 1960~70s J against Normalization Treaty with Japan o 1980s J against US (anti-Americanism) ¾ 386 Generation o 3 o 8 J those who were in educated in university in 1980s, strong demonstrators o 6 ¾ 1988 J Seoul Olympics J Human Rights groups worldwide are interested in Korea[s treatment o International organizations Æ had no clue of KoreaL2}ÀŒLKLš[s treatment until; ƒ In January 1987, a student of Seoul National University, Park Chong Chul, was killed by the police during investigation after being captured during anti- government demonstration ƒ During interrogation, Park was tortured to death ƒ However, the police initially publicized the reason to Park[s death as sickness ƒ A medical physician courageously reported that Park[s actual death was due to sufferings and torture ¾ By 1987, US government began to pressure Chun[s government Æ Chun had little choice but to accept new presidential election Æ Chun supported Roh o Chun was elected by NCU J National Council for Unification. o Yooshin Constitution Æ 7 years of presidency ¾ Social Change during 1980s o Kwangju Incident Æ anti- government sentiment ƒ Even some student bodies favoured Kim Il Sung (NorthKorea) and began to study ƒ There were numerous protests, highest income generating company = tear gas manufacturer st ¾ Roh Tae Woo J elected by popular vote (1 President to be elected by popular vote) o Only 36% ¾ Roh[s Dillema J image as Chun[s successor ¾ Late 1980s J new movement/approach between Ea
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