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Chapter 16 The Creation of the Manchu Empire.docx

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East Asian Studies
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Chapter16TheCreationoftheManchuEmpire(1600-1800) The Manchus - Descended from the Jurchens, who had ruled north China during the Jin Dynasty - The language they spoke belongs to Tungus family, making it close to some of the languages spoken in nearby Siberia and distantly related to Korean and Japanese Just like Mongols - Had a tribal social structure and were excellent horseman and archers - Their society was strongly hierarchical, with elites and slaves Nurhaci 努爾哈赤 - Leader of one group of Manchus - Over few decades, he was able to expand his territories, in the process not only uniting the Manchus but also creating a social-political military organization that brought together Manchus, Mongols, and Chinese - Nurhaci and his children married Mongols, as well as Manchus, and these marriages cemented alliances - Created a new social basis for his armies in units Banners  Each banner was made up of a set of military companies but included the families and slaves of the soldiers as well  1644, 24 banners were formed (8 each Manchu, Mongol, and Chinese banners) Hong Taiji - Renamed his state Qing Wu Sangui - Opened the gates of the Great Wall to let the Manchus in, within a couple of weeks they had occupied Beijing - Joined forces with Manchus, as did many other Chinese generals Ming Loyalism - Shi Kefa- scholar-official who had risen to minister of war in Nanjing, took charge of defense and stationed his army at Yangzhou - Ming loyalists refused to shave their hair, Manchu commanders felt justifies in ordering the slaughter of defiant cities such as Jiading, Changshu, Jiangyin - Zheng Chenggong 鄭成功—able to hold out in Taiwan - Gu Yanwu thought that the Ming had suffered from overcentralization and advocated greater local autonomy - Wang Fuzhi 王扶之  Joined resistance  He saw an urgent need not only to return Confucianism to its roots, but also to protect Chinese civilization from the “barbarians” The Qing at its height - In these periods, Chinese population seems to have nearly doubled Kangxi - He could speak, read, and write Chinese and appreciated the value of persuading educated Chinese the Manchus had a legitimate claim to the Mandate of Heaven - Most of the political institutions of the Ming Dynasty had been taken over relatively unchanged examination system - Undertook series of tours to the south, held a special exam to select men to compile the official history of the Ming Dynasty - Main military challenge: 1. Revolt of Wu Sangui and 2 other Chinese generals who in the early years of the conquest had been given vast tracts of land in the south as rewards for joining - By annexing Mongolia, he made sure Qing wouldn’t have the northern problems as Ming - Qing presence in Tibet was made firm with the establishment of permanent garrison of banner soldiers - Boarder: near Russia - Manchu & Russian Rulers approved a treaty ( written in Russian, Manchu, Chinese, Latin) 1. Defining their borders in Manchuria and regulating trade 2. Treaty in 1727: allowed a Russian ecclesiastical mission to reside in Beijing and a caravan to make a trip from Russia to Beijing once every 3 years  Russians interested in securing a steady supply of tea Yongzheng Emperor( rules for 12 years) - Hard-working ruler - He tightened central control over the government - Oversaw a rationalization of the tax structure - Substituting new levies for a patchwork of taxes and fees Qianlong - Put much of his energy into impressing his subjects with his magnificence - He learned to converse in Mogolian, Uighur, Tibetan, and Tangut and addressed envoys in their own languages. - Initiated a massi
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