Class Notes (836,067)
Canada (509,611)
EAS105H1 (29)
all (1)
Lecture

Chapter 16 The Creation of the Manchu Empire.docx

4 Pages
155 Views
Unlock Document

Department
East Asian Studies
Course
EAS105H1
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter16TheCreationoftheManchuEmpire(1600-1800) The Manchus - Descended from the Jurchens, who had ruled north China during the Jin Dynasty - The language they spoke belongs to Tungus family, making it close to some of the languages spoken in nearby Siberia and distantly related to Korean and Japanese Just like Mongols - Had a tribal social structure and were excellent horseman and archers - Their society was strongly hierarchical, with elites and slaves Nurhaci 努爾哈赤 - Leader of one group of Manchus - Over few decades, he was able to expand his territories, in the process not only uniting the Manchus but also creating a social-political military organization that brought together Manchus, Mongols, and Chinese - Nurhaci and his children married Mongols, as well as Manchus, and these marriages cemented alliances - Created a new social basis for his armies in units Banners  Each banner was made up of a set of military companies but included the families and slaves of the soldiers as well  1644, 24 banners were formed (8 each Manchu, Mongol, and Chinese banners) Hong Taiji - Renamed his state Qing Wu Sangui - Opened the gates of the Great Wall to let the Manchus in, within a couple of weeks they had occupied Beijing - Joined forces with Manchus, as did many other Chinese generals Ming Loyalism - Shi Kefa- scholar-official who had risen to minister of war in Nanjing, took charge of defense and stationed his army at Yangzhou - Ming loyalists refused to shave their hair, Manchu commanders felt justifies in ordering the slaughter of defiant cities such as Jiading, Changshu, Jiangyin - Zheng Chenggong 鄭成功—able to hold out in Taiwan - Gu Yanwu thought that the Ming had suffered from overcentralization and advocated greater local autonomy - Wang Fuzhi 王扶之  Joined resistance  He saw an urgent need not only to return Confucianism to its roots, but also to protect Chinese civilization from the “barbarians” The Qing at its height - In these periods, Chinese population seems to have nearly doubled Kangxi - He could speak, read, and write Chinese and appreciated the value of persuading educated Chinese the Manchus had a legitimate claim to the Mandate of Heaven - Most of the political institutions of the Ming Dynasty had been taken over relatively unchanged examination system - Undertook series of tours to the south, held a special exam to select men to compile the official history of the Ming Dynasty - Main military challenge: 1. Revolt of Wu Sangui and 2 other Chinese generals who in the early years of the conquest had been given vast tracts of land in the south as rewards for joining - By annexing Mongolia, he made sure Qing wouldn’t have the northern problems as Ming - Qing presence in Tibet was made firm with the establishment of permanent garrison of banner soldiers - Boarder: near Russia - Manchu & Russian Rulers approved a treaty ( written in Russian, Manchu, Chinese, Latin) 1. Defining their borders in Manchuria and regulating trade 2. Treaty in 1727: allowed a Russian ecclesiastical mission to reside in Beijing and a caravan to make a trip from Russia to Beijing once every 3 years  Russians interested in securing a steady supply of tea Yongzheng Emperor( rules for 12 years) - Hard-working ruler - He tightened central control over the government - Oversaw a rationalization of the tax structure - Substituting new levies for a patchwork of taxes and fees Qianlong - Put much of his energy into impressing his subjects with his magnificence - He learned to converse in Mogolian, Uighur, Tibetan, and Tangut and addressed envoys in their own languages. - Initiated a massi
More Less

Related notes for EAS105H1

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit