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Lecture 4

EAS396H1 Lecture 4: EAS396 Lecture 4

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University of Toronto St. George
East Asian Studies
Wen- Ching Sung

EAS396 Lecture 4 Proposal: 2 pg. long, double spaced 12 point font • subject (research question), thesis, outline, references • define your key terms when you develop analysis • references: 4 scholarly works o among the 4, two required readings and 2 external reference • e.g., individualism – in China, research and examples of it in Chinese • structure analysis of your argument in key terms • Presentation: 20 mins: 4-5 mins per person o avoid spending time only presenting information o provide an interesting story first and raise your research question • submit visuals one day before presentation • Write-up o a cover page o the scheme of labor division in your group, and your role of the group research o all points that you presented in class ▪ address the point of your portion of the presentation o MLA or Chicago styles in presentation o a brief self-assessment of how you performed ▪ strength and cons of presentation (what kind of latter grade you would assign for yourself) ▪ optional: provide assessment of team member • In China, the state was the only patriots for science • After economic reform, they didn’t mention patriotism that much • Emphasis of patriotism in the images of Chinese scientists could be o mass media o scientific culture o state was the only patron o historical circumstances: saving China via science • Duality of scientists for the state o resources o threats: victims • Distinctions between “self” vs. “other” in the Cold War era Ethnicity: Ethnicity and Nation-making • Bill notes/money: they put the faces of the minorities on the bills • ethnicity/diversity is something that is valued • Is an ethnicity distinction necessary? • What is a good way to distinguish ethnicities? Who made the 56 ethnic distinctions? What are the roles of scientists and the state? • What if there are conflicting evidences in ethnicity categorization? • Part 1: Need of ethnicity distinction o Who should represent the human body? : “Inclusion” by Steven Epstein o until the mid-1980s, American scientists only recruit white middle aged men and assume the conclusion could apply to the rest of the population o studies from 1980s, women are discontent because there is a unique women body that you cannot find result of medication in the male body so they refuse to be represented by males o all the research need to include women subject in the study o and other ethnicities argued that Caucasian male bodies cannot represent biological essence of them so they also need to be included • Who are Chinese? • The emphasis of diversity is also seen in nation-making o 1. In the revolution to overthrow Qing Dynasty, anti-Qing/anti-Manchu sentiments was emphasized o 2. Zhonghua minzu: Han, Manchu, Mongol, Hui/Muslim, Tibetan (5 kinds of ethnicity are considered Chinese) ▪ big jump between the first articulation and this articulation of Chinese th o 3. The competition between Nationalist party and CCP in the 20 century ▪ CCP argues that they’re more superior than the Nationalists party because they are more diverse and have more ethnicity in China • Total of 56 ethnicities • Nation as an “imagined community” o identity o issues of representation ▪ sometimes recognition of ethnic groups serve to give rights of their ethnicity o issues of inclusion and exclusion ▪ a lot of ethnicities would be excluded if we only imagined Han as Chinese o the centre and the boundaries of a community • The imagined Centre: Han o Han is not only the centre of the imagined community but occupies the centre of the territory o minorities occupy in the peripheries • Chinese is a multi-ethnic country: 56 ethnic groups, including Han and 55 ethnic minorities • National minority (shaoshu minzu) equals to 8.47% of the total Chinese population • Half of the minorities reside in Yunnan • Minzu: (barrowed from Japanese) by Liang Qichao in 1899 o Does not have a synonym in English o it’s similar to “ethnicity” or “nationality” • Ambivalent duality • ethnicity issues entangled with the birth of a modern state in China • Chinese are composed of multiple ethnicities but simultaneously highlight their unity • The duality of “Chineseness” is not give o it has been formulated itself across different political regime in the past century • Han: The imagined centre o the construction of “Han” ▪ Han is by a certain kind of history formations ▪ they are emerged by the ethnicity project and it’s bee
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