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Lecture 5

EAS396H1 Lecture 5: EAS396 Lecture 5

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East Asian Studies
Wen- Ching Sung

EAS396 Lecture 5 Ethnicity and Nation-Making Why is Mullaney’s view of ethnicity identification project in China? • Are the 56 ethnic groups “pre-existing” natural kind? Why and why not? • Identification Project reduced from 400 to 56 ethnic groups o some categories are created by the social scientists o language would make it no pre-existing o he doesn’t say it’s pre-existing because they are not that simple o he also says it’s not scientific or objective or neutral o we cannot say the ethnicity project is to discover the pre-existing categories because some categories are purposed by social scientists • Discovery vs. Construction • Similarities and differences between taxonomy and ethnicity classification? o taxonomy = groupings of species based on how they evolve o species have a clear distinction that they can reproduce and the taxonomy is based on functions and environment o In taxonomy there is also a debate about certain kinds of species as well and how does it reflect human perspective and true evolution history? • Imagined community o Who is Japanese? What is Japan? o Nation as an “imagined community” ▪ identity ▪ issues of representation e.g., Miss Japan ▪ inclusion and exclusion ▪ the center and the boundaries of a community o coined by anthropologist Benedict Anderson in his book Imagined Communities: Reflections of the Origins and Spread of Nationalism ▪ a nation is an imaged community ▪ national consciousness involves a process by which the nation comes to be imagined, modeled, adapted and transformed • Vehicles of Imagination o maps ▪ e.g., Taiwan is included in China but in Taiwan, they are not included o census ▪ the outcome of the census helps us to imagine the community in this society ▪ e.g., Canada is diversified because we have a census ▪ in China, identification project helps us know about 56 ethnicities in China o museums o mass media o ethnicity identification project • China emphasis its diversity in its population Mass Science • Approaches to mass science 1: User • Approach 2: citizen science • International background: the Cold War • Domestic context: Maoism o Mao had great power to define what is science and what is not o “mass science” – science should be by and for the people o Mao said science “walks on two legs” – masses, others are experts or specialists ▪ experts and people need to work together o Anti-elitism: call for mass participation and mass mobilization in science o Science must serve the people and has to be practical, empirical and utilitarian o Science needs to combine both indigenous and Western science ▪ examples: earthquake monitoring and barefoot doctors • barefoot doctors don’t receive any formal training in medical school and receives basic training in traditional science medicine combined with Western knowledge • earthquake monitoring was utilize by folklore knowledge to analyze potential science of earthquakes ▪ traditional science medicines • Science is used in society • Evaluations of Mass Science o Maoist mass science challenges the Western idea of science and technology, which is detached, objective, rational, impersonal, apolitical, governed by rules and run by experts o “Chinese Model:” In 1970s, Western accounts of socialist Chinese science wer
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