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EAS100Y1 Lecture Notes - Park Chung-Hee, October Restoration, Exmilitary

East Asian Studies
Course Code
Young Yoo

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EAS217 2010-10-21
Roh Tae Woo; 6th Republic; Popular Vote; Seoul Olympics; Roh 36%; Kim YS 27%; Kim DJ 26%; Kim JP 8%
- ZP]}vo]uVZµv[s successer only 36%; Chun[s intention; Mikhail Gorbachev; Bush; Nordpolitik =
Northern Policy; Hungary (1989) Russia (1990) China (1992); Roh[s Restoration of Democratic Rule;
Eight-Point Program; ^transitory democracy_; ^post-democratization Era_; ^less warlike and more
peaceful_; ^end of Military Authoritarian State_
1987 t Roh[s Eight point Program Æ 1988 t Seoul Olympics Æ Nordpolitik Æ 1990 Gorbachev Bush Æ
1989~1992 t Diplomatic Re- Communist bloc Æ * Taiwan
¾ Chun Doo Hwan - tried to purify the society and politicians
¾ To Chun[s government, the most watchful political opponent = Kim Dae Joong (popular political
¾ Kim was considered as impure and ideologically polluted under the notions of the Chun
government Æ Charged under Martial law command Æ communist connection and anti-
government actions + crime of inciting student uprising in Seoul and Kwangju Incident
¾ Kim DJ was given a death sentence; later on, death sentence Æ life imprisonment
¾ Lawmakers in US and Koreans overseas pressured Chun[s government to change its attitude
towards Kim[s sentence
o In 1990, Kim DJ invited foreigners as a show of gratitude for their support
¾ Kwangju t in South Chulla Province (Kim :[s home province)
¾ Kwangju Incident t occurred in May 18th
¾ Early 1980s t dark political era Æ power struggles and rival hostilities, martial law Æ political
instability and unstable economic situation
o Similar political situation as early 1960s t Lee SM Æ Yoon BS Æ Park Jung Hee
¾ In the spring of 1980, there were large scale demonstrations in Seoul, Jeonju, and Daejeon, etc.
¾ Massive demonstrations against Chun Æ Kim YS and Kim DJ t popular oppositions and leaders
of student demonstrations in the early 1980s
¾ Demonstration against government Æ government initiated martial law
¾ Many leading politicians (including Kim DJ) were arrested.
o There occurred a violent uprising in Kwangju City t seized weapons and occupied
government buildings, broadcasting studios, etc.
o A huge clash between the public and student vs. police and military
¾ In order to suppress protestors, Chun despatched regular military unit early in the morning Æ
about 2,000 students were massacred by the military sent by Chun Doo Hwan.
¾ The government denied that they had murdered anyone innocent, and launched an effort to
tighten security and limit individual freedom
¾ During the Chun[s regime, more than 100,000 students were expelled from higher educational
o During the time of Park Jung Hee, Presidents of universities were appointed to retired
military officers
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¾ Even up to today, the exact and detailed number of those who died during the Kwangju incident
is not known.
¾ Korean society in 1980s Æ Anti Americanism arose among the students
o Students start to study Juche Ideology (ïÌØ) and Communism
o Many Koreans believe US supported Chun[s presidency b/c US did not prevent Chun,
and therefore shared responsibility for Kwangju Incident for approving Chun[s dispatch
of army to the city
US-ROK Joint Command (1978) Æ US Commander has the right to dispatch
Korean military to other places (·| is in US military commander[s
x President alone did not have the full authority
There was no evidence that US conspired or supported Chun during Kwangju
o Other reasons strengthening the Anti-Americanism
General Wickeham t Commanding General of American forces in Korea t had an
interview with Los Angeles Times, saying that he[s in support of Chun and that
other Koreans were in line like Zlammings[
x His metaphor of how he described the Korean people upset Koreans
February 2nd, 1981, President Reagan invited Chun to US for the first time after
Reagan was elected. (First state guest) Æ provided ample vision for Koreans to
believe that US government was in support of Chun[s government
¾ Student[s Anti-government demonstrations
o 1910 ~20s t against Japanese colonization
o 1950~60s t against Rhee Seung Man
o 1960~70s t against Normalization Treaty with Japan
o 1980s t against US (anti-Americanism)
¾ 386 Generation
o 3
o 8 t those who were in educated in university in 1980s, strong demonstrators
o 6
¾ 1988 t Seoul Olympics t Human Rights groups worldwide are interested in Korea[s treatment
o International organizations Æ had no clue of KoreavP}Àvuv[s treatment untilY
In January 1987, a student of Seoul National University, Park Chong Chul, was
killed by the police during investigation after being captured during anti-
government demonstration
During interrogation, Park was tortured to death
However, the police initially publicized the reason to Park[s death as sickness
A medical physician courageously reported that Park[s actual death was due to
sufferings and torture
¾ By 1987, US government began to pressure Chun[s government Æ Chun had little choice but to
accept new presidential election Æ Chun supported Roh
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