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Lecture 2

EAS100Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Zeng Guofan, Li Hongzhang, China Merchants Group

3 pages95 viewsSummer 2014

Department
East Asian Studies
Course Code
EAS100Y1
Professor
Xi Chen
Lecture
2

Page:
of 3
Session 2:!
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Question:!
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Chronology of the great proletariat revolution!
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#1 - When does it start and end!
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-difficult to answer!
-commonly known by the critique of the party officials !
-officially launched in 1966!
-ended in 1976 fall of gang of four!
-chronology still in debate!
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depends on the interpretation though!
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If culture is key in the understanding of the revolution then !
-Mittler might argue that the culture of the revolution should be skewed in the larger 20th
century context!
-CCP propaganda art did not appear out of the blue but has a pre and post history!
!
Richard Krauss!
“it was culture, in that its most consistent targets were the arts a popular beliefs…It is tempting
to regard this raucous decade as the last and perhaps final push in a century long trajectory of
the Chinese revolution, after which China got down to the serious business of building a modern
nation”!
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Culture should not be polluted by politics!
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contemporary theories of culture - NEVER politically neutral!
- !
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Why was “culture” primary to economic and technological revolution!
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maybe marxist leanings to consciousness and then Mao saying that the culture is the reflection
of culture and society at the time. !
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Challenges at the end of the 1800’s !
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-fall of qing!
-Tai ping rebellion!
-opium wars and imperial conquest in China!
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1851-1862: Xian Feng is emperor.!
1811-1872: Zeng Guofan, scholar and official.!
1812-1885: Zuo Zongtang, leading modernizer.!
1823-1901: Li Hongzhang, modernizer and scholar official.!
1850-1864: Hong Xiuchuan leads the Taiping Rebellion.!
1856-1860: Anglo-French War (The Second Opium War).!
1860: Treaty of Tientsin is ratified.!
Summer Palace is looted by British and French troops.!
Prince Gong is acting head of state.!
1862-1875: Tong Zhi Restoration.!
1853-1868: Nien Rebellion.!
1866: Navy Yard is established at Fuzhou.!
1868-1873: Muslim Rebellion.!
1870: Tientsin Massacre.!
1872: China Merchants Steam Navigation Company is established.!
1875-1908: Guang Xu is emperor.!
1838-1908: Cixi (Tz'u Hsi), empress dowager.!
1894-1895: Sino-Japanese War.!
1896: Postal Service is established.!
1898: Hundred Day's Reform.!
1898-1900: Boxer Rebellion.!
1904-1905: Russo-Japanese War.!
1905: Traditional Civil Service System ends.!
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China was never colonized by foreign powers!
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but sometimes was considered a semi colony to describe the semi existence of the foreign
imperial powers - Shumei Shih the Lure of Modern Times!
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May 4th - Call for sweeping reform of confucian traditions!
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!
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“Everything requires careful consideration if one is to understand it. In ancient times, people
often ate other human beings, but i am hazy about it. I tried to look this up in history but my
history has no chronology and scrawled all over each page are words “Virtue and Morality”… I
read half the night until I began to see words between the lines. The whole book was filled with
words-‘Eat Humans’”!
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Lu Xun - Diary of a Madmen!
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Staunch repeal against confucian and traditional Chinese philosophy!
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Save the Children”!
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CCP founded in 1921 heavily influenced by the may 4th movement!
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the long march brought the CCP to rethink their relationship with the countryside!
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Maos talk at yunan talks on literature and Arts let Mao dene what the proper CCP
culture should be!
-redefinition of what constituted culture itself!
-primary goal was to fight against the Japanese and WIN THE WAR!
-2nd goal of socialist revolution!
-culture had to work together with military!
-IMPORTANT POINTS OF YAN’AN TALKS!
!
I. Art and literature must express the consciousness of the proletariate (peasants, workers,
soldiers) - Broadly the revolutionary masses.!
1. New arts and literature needed to express the culture of the revolutionary masses!
II. Attitude - revolutionary culture must express the dark side of the enemy !
III. Audience - no longer small group of elites and now the peasants!
IV. need for a new type of simplifies art and literature !
V. Popularization - among a new audience !
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Art must be subordinate to the party and the party must define and enforce what is culturally
appropriate!
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Li hua “Roar China”, 1935!
!- Yan’an lecture causes us to rethink the relationship between art and life and to explore
the new art forms (woodcarving) !
!- the woodcarver movement cannot be viewed as national but it represented a drive to
connect the subjective consciousness to!
!- suffering of the Chinese people under imperialism !
!- carvings easy to produce and promulgate!
!
-Chinese wood carve movement is similar to the avant gardé movement in 20th century
Europe!
-both aim to challenge the existing values and standard definitions of art in formal institutions. !
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Weekly question advice!
-What is a critical question!
-don’t do a summary!
-begin the q’s with “HOW”!
!
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