EAS100Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Zeng Guofan, Li Hongzhang, China Merchants Group
3 pages95 viewsSummer 2014
DepartmentEast Asian Studies
Chronology of the great proletariat revolution!
#1 - When does it start and end!
-difﬁcult to answer!
-commonly known by the critique of the party ofﬁcials !
-ofﬁcially launched in 1966!
-ended in 1976 fall of gang of four!
-chronology still in debate!
depends on the interpretation though!
If culture is key in the understanding of the revolution then !
-Mittler might argue that the culture of the revolution should be skewed in the larger 20th
-CCP propaganda art did not appear out of the blue but has a pre and post history!
“it was culture, in that its most consistent targets were the arts a popular beliefs…It is tempting
to regard this raucous decade as the last and perhaps ﬁnal push in a century long trajectory of
the Chinese revolution, after which China got down to the serious business of building a modern
Culture should not be polluted by politics!
contemporary theories of culture - NEVER politically neutral!
Why was “culture” primary to economic and technological revolution!
maybe marxist leanings to consciousness and then Mao saying that the culture is the reﬂection
of culture and society at the time. !
Challenges at the end of the 1800’s !
-fall of qing!
-Tai ping rebellion!
-opium wars and imperial conquest in China!
1851-1862: Xian Feng is emperor.!
1811-1872: Zeng Guofan, scholar and ofﬁcial.!
1812-1885: Zuo Zongtang, leading modernizer.!
1823-1901: Li Hongzhang, modernizer and scholar ofﬁcial.!
1850-1864: Hong Xiuchuan leads the Taiping Rebellion.!
1856-1860: Anglo-French War (The Second Opium War).!
1860: Treaty of Tientsin is ratiﬁed.!
Summer Palace is looted by British and French troops.!
Prince Gong is acting head of state.!
1862-1875: Tong Zhi Restoration.!
1853-1868: Nien Rebellion.!
1866: Navy Yard is established at Fuzhou.!
1868-1873: Muslim Rebellion.!
1870: Tientsin Massacre.!
1872: China Merchants Steam Navigation Company is established.!
1875-1908: Guang Xu is emperor.!
1838-1908: Cixi (Tz'u Hsi), empress dowager.!
1894-1895: Sino-Japanese War.!
1896: Postal Service is established.!
1898: Hundred Day's Reform.!
1898-1900: Boxer Rebellion.!
1904-1905: Russo-Japanese War.!
1905: Traditional Civil Service System ends.!
China was never colonized by foreign powers!
but sometimes was considered a semi colony to describe the semi existence of the foreign
imperial powers - Shumei Shih the Lure of Modern Times!
May 4th - Call for sweeping reform of confucian traditions!
“Everything requires careful consideration if one is to understand it. In ancient times, people
often ate other human beings, but i am hazy about it. I tried to look this up in history but my
history has no chronology and scrawled all over each page are words “Virtue and Morality”… I
read half the night until I began to see words between the lines. The whole book was ﬁlled with
Lu Xun - Diary of a Madmen!
Staunch repeal against confucian and traditional Chinese philosophy!
“Save the Children”!
CCP founded in 1921 heavily inﬂuenced by the may 4th movement!
the long march brought the CCP to rethink their relationship with the countryside!
Mao’s talk at yunan talks on literature and Arts let Mao deﬁne what the proper CCP
culture should be!
-redeﬁnition of what constituted culture itself!
-primary goal was to ﬁght against the Japanese and WIN THE WAR!
-2nd goal of socialist revolution!
-culture had to work together with military!
-IMPORTANT POINTS OF YAN’AN TALKS!
I. Art and literature must express the consciousness of the proletariate (peasants, workers,
soldiers) - Broadly the revolutionary masses.!
1. New arts and literature needed to express the culture of the revolutionary masses!
II. Attitude - revolutionary culture must express the dark side of the enemy !
III. Audience - no longer small group of elites and now the peasants!
IV. need for a new type of simpliﬁes art and literature !
V. Popularization - among a new audience !
Art must be subordinate to the party and the party must deﬁne and enforce what is culturally
Li hua “Roar China”, 1935!
!- Yan’an lecture causes us to rethink the relationship between art and life and to explore
the new art forms (woodcarving) !
!- the woodcarver movement cannot be viewed as national but it represented a drive to
connect the subjective consciousness to!
!- suffering of the Chinese people under imperialism !
!- carvings easy to produce and promulgate!
-Chinese wood carve movement is similar to the avant gardé movement in 20th century
-both aim to challenge the existing values and standard deﬁnitions of art in formal institutions. !
Weekly question advice!
-What is a critical question!
-don’t do a summary!
-begin the q’s with “HOW”!
Loved by over 2.2 million students
Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.