EAS103H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Liao Dynasty, Fujiwara Clan, Bone Rank System

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31 Aug 2017
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Goryeo (Koryo)
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Kamakura
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Mongols/ Yuan China
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What were the bases of power in Goryeo (Koryo), Kamakura, and Mongol societies
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What was new/different about these regimes compared to what came before
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Questions for this Week
Rose during the fall of the Tang dynasty
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Heredity
Led rebellion in 917
Justified rebellion with Chinese Mandate of Heaven
Wang Geon (or posthumously (name given after he died) King Taejo)
935-43
R.
Founder came from merchant family
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Gogoryeo->Goryeo
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Beginning coincides with Song dynasty in China
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"The Success of every great undertaking of our state depends upon the favor and
protection of Buddha…"
Different geography and people from Chinese- Don't have to copy them
completely
Welcomed educated elite
"In the past, we have always had a deep attachment for the ways of China and all of our
institutions have been modeled upon those of Tang"
Ten Injunctions
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Goryeo (Koryo) (935-1392)
1987- Chinese Characters hand carved onto 81 000 wooden blocks for printing
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To spread Buddha's blessings
First set (81 000 wooden blocks) destroyed by Mongol invasion
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Re-carved as act of resistance against Mongols
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Japan managed to buy 43 sets of these printed complete Buddhist scriptures in 1400s
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Printing of the canon means to protect the state against invasions
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Producing the Buddhist Canon (Tripitaka)
Written during Goryeo:
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History of the Three Kingdoms (1145)
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Written during Mongol invasion
Compiler used earlier sources that have been lost
Models as act of historiography taking inspiration from China
Tales of Buddha (miracles, etc.)
Memorabilia of the Three Kingdoms (~1285)
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Predates Gutenberg's invention (metal movable type in Europe) by 2 centuries
Didn't result in increase of printing
Not widely used-> restricted to royal Family
First use of metal moveable type- (~1234)
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Ceramic of green-grey
Skilled potters migrated from China to Korea after fall of Tang dynasty
Inlay technique (sanggam) unique to Korea
Luxury items in China ("finest under heaven")
Goryeo Celadon
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Culture, Writing, Learning
Lecture 5- Warrior Regimes
October 21, 2016
10:25 AM
Lecture 5 Page 1
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Luxury items in China ("finest under heaven")
Enthusiasm for these items in East Asia
Popular in Korea because of it's
Parents heredity composition defined your rank
Disappearance of bone rank system (Silla)
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Family lineage associated with where lineage was based
New aristocracy
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Members part of civil aristocracy
Major land owners, slave owners, opposition to king
Yangban (audience with king)
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Ruling class= civil and military officials
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Wang Geon consolidated power by marrying into Yangban families and marrying his
daughters back into those families
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Included civil service examination but was ineffective at instigating social mobility
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Government was more localized
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Power Structure in Goryeo
Mongolia and Manchuria
Formed Liao dynasty in North of China
Conquered state in north of peninsula-> Stopped Goryeo's plans to expand into
Manchuria
Invaded Goryeo
Sacked Capital in 1010
Goryeo defeated them in 1018
Khitans- Liao dynasty (807-1125)- North of China
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Manchurian tribal group
Created Jin dynasty in north part of China
Goryeo joined with Song to attack Khitans and Jurchens, but Jurchens conquered
northern China
Defeated Khitans, but fell to Mongols
Jurchens- Jin dynasty (1115-1234)
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Mongols
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Foreign Threats
1170- military officers deposed king: Yi Ulmin called to run government
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Family ruled until 1258
1196- another commander, Cho Chungheon killed Yi in another takeover
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After 1216- Choe family rule limited by Mongols
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Relates to Japan at this time
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Military Takeover
Fujiwara clan began to fall apart when one of the important members died
Began to lose control of provinces
Began to lose control of throne
Couldn't sustain themselves
Some people demoted
Loss of revenue at court
Trained infantry and mounted soldiers
Began as household guards
2 clans: Taira and Minamoto
Trained soldiers- rise of warrior class with own code of behavior (Bushida)->
Samurai
New family names and people began to form bands
Weakened central government
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After Heian (Japan)
Lecture 5 Page 2
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