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CA (650,000)
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ECO102H1 (200)
Lecture 27

Lecture 27-Macroeconomics Overview


Department
Economics
Course Code
ECO102H1
Professor
Jack Carr
Lecture
27

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Private Goods
PPF: Production Possibilities
Frontier
indicates Potential GDP
Public
Goods
PPF
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Economic Growth
Tuesday, January 26th, 2010.
Macroeconomics: Overview
Microeconomics: focus on individual firms, households
Macroeconomics: focus on entire economy
Motivation
Bank of Canada forecasts, for 1st half of 2007:
x Output will grow by 2.5%
x Inflation will equal 1.0%
Question:
1. Why does output fluctuate?
(ex. Weak US economy, in near term, will reduce demand for Canadian exports)
2. Why is output growth important?
(ex. If output growth falls sharply, unemployment will rise)
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Imports: IM (Text)
IN (Lectures)
Issues:
(1) Short-term fluctuations in output and employment
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Output measured by real Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
(2) Inflation (percentage change in average level of prices)
(3) Economic growth (expansion RIHFRQRP\¶VFDSDFLW\WRSURGXFHJRRGVDQGVHUYLFHVDV
evidenced by
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Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
1. GDP: the market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a
given period of time, usually a year
2. Total expenditures = total incomes earned
2.1 Example: John pays Joan $50 to now his lawn
Expenditure (by John) = $50
Income earned (by Joan) = $50
2.2 Implications: GDP can be measured either by adding expenditures or by adding
incomes earned
GDP Expenditure Approach
Consumption (C)
+ Investment (I)
+ Government (G)
+ Exports (X)
- Imports (M)
______
GDP X ± M = Net Exports (NX)
Exclude:
1. Expenditures on intermediate goods, to avoid double counting
Example: 0HQ¶VVXLWDILQDOJRod, is included. Wool used in suit, an intermediate good,
is not included.
2. Expenditures on used (ie. Previously produced) goods, which contributed to GDP in
previous years.
Example: Expenditure on Chevrolet produced in 1998 is included in GDP for 1998.
Expenditure on 1992 Ford is not included in GDP for 1998.
3. Transfer payments by government (social insurance payments, unemployment insurances
benefits), since are not expenditures for goods or services.
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