EEB337 20121106.docx

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Ecology & Evolutionary Biology

EEB337 20121106 Lodicule: - Well-developed vasculature is dispersed throughout the lodicule, similar to petals (although the vascular architectures differ), which is necessary to enable rapid and uniform swelling of the lodicule at anthesis. Rapid swelling of the lodicule cuases flower opening by mechanistically separating the lemma from the palea. Both vascular differentiation and the positioning at the base of a flower and the thick structures are necessary for lodicules to cause flower opening. Rosaceae: - 85 genera/2000 spp. (Kalkman 2004), subcosmopolitan, temperate, especially N temperate - Trees, shrubs, and herbs. Leaves simple, compound, or dissected, usually spirally arranged. - Stipules usually present (but not in Spiraeoideae), often joined to the petiole - What’s special in human terms?  Fruit crops  Medicinal plants  Sometimes used to stop bleeding during childbirth  Used to control symptoms of heart disease  Ornamental and scent plant - Subfamily of roses:  Amygdaloideae:  Includes plums, peaches, almonds  Maloideae (Pyrinae): - What’s special biologically?  Reproductive biology?  Gametophytic self-incompatibility  Dioecy has arisen more than once (e.g. Kageneckia, Maddenia, Oemleria, Rubus spp.)  Gametophytic apomixes in many groups  Limited barrier to hybridization in some groups  Cytological diversity  X = 7, 8, 9, 15, 16, 17  Polyploidy frequent  Polyploidy means that you have more than two pairs of chromosomes  Ecological roles  Early successional  Wildlife cover, food  Nitrogen fixing symbioses in some groups  Morphological diversity  Few, if any, defining characteristics for the entire family  Variation in fruit type seized upon as a basis for subfamilial classification - Rosaceae flowers usually perfect, perigynous or (in Pyrony???) epigynous. - K , often appearing as lobes on a hypanthium (3-)5(-10) - C(3-)5(-10)ricate, often large, rarely absent - A(1, 5-)20 to manyets of 5 or 10 that develop centripetally, filaments usually free and inserted on hypanthium. - Inner surface of hypanthium often nectariferous - G1-many in Maloideae developing into a hypanthial (inferior) ovary Subfamilial classification: 3 subfamilies: - Dryadoideae
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